BPD Meter Maid History

Sunday, 09 February 2020 04:27

A Meter Maid unit began on 8 May of 1961 with 10 Meter Maids and a Sergeant. Prior to that on 1 November 1958, The Baltimore Police department Traffic Enforcement unit enforced parking meter violations. The first Meters went up on North Ave. after 48 days the meters had made a profit of a little more than $29K. $29K in 1958 would be around $275,000.00 in 2019

Baltimore City Park Police

Saturday, 08 February 2020 04:31

Baltimore City Park Police

Baltimore Park Police Badge
Courtesy Patricia Driscoll

City Police Power to Include Parks

10 March 1961 – page 29

City Police Power to Include Parks

ANNAPOLIS nine marks – the Senate today enacted a Bill extending the authority of Baltimore city police put into the counties said they may police parkland.

Introduced by delicate Marvin Mandel Democrat this Baltimore the measure provides that the authority of the city’s police Commissioner Shelby concurred with local police.

Recently, the city force absorbed the Park police and the bill extends its authority into the parks. Meanwhile, Senate President George W Della Democrat six Baltimore introduced the Bill protecting the pension and promotion rights gained by members of the Park police before the merger.


Reported for the Baltimore Sun

The Sun (1837-1987); May 27, 1887;

pg. 5


confession of the prisoner and establishment of his identity

the color man who had said his name was Thomas Henry, and is accused of a felonious assault on Mrs. Mary J. Ridley, of West Woodbury, and George Hill Park, Tuesday morning, confessed to Marshal Jacob fray yesterday afternoon 26 may 1887 at police headquarters in Baltimore city in the presence of deputy Marshal Lannan Capt. Freeburger and detective Pumphrey that he assaulted the lady claiming however, to attacked her only for money, having seen a person or hand.

Marshall Fray was much interested in the case is eight of his policeman are detailed for duty in the park. After visiting the scene of the assault on Tuesday and conferring with Capt. could sell, he determined to his utmost to get to the bottom of the facts. Accordingly, he sent detective Pumphrey to Towsontown on Wednesday to have a talk with a colored mAn who was held in the jail there, and if possible gain from him any details that might be of use in ferreting out the prisoner’s history and movements. The detective did not have much luck so the Marshal resolved to try his hand. In company with Detective Pumphrey he drove to Towsontown yesterday morning and had a conference with states attorney Burke. The Marshal told Mr. Burke that he was very anxious to learn for himself if the colored man was the assailant of the lady, but felt he was somewhat handicapped by the remote distance between himself and the prisoner. The Marshal thought if he had the man in the city he would be able to learn something important. States attorney Burke said in reply that he was willing the Marshal should take Williams to Baltimore, and accordingly issued orders to that effect to the jail officials. Detective Pumphrey came to the city on the railway cars, while the colored man and the Marshal road together in the Marshal’s carriage. On the way, the Marshal replied his companion with questions, and on York road, beyond Waverley, Williams, feeling himself cornered, said he was sick and would not talk further. The Marshal did not press him. When police headquarters were reached Williams was given a seat in the Marshal’s office, were deputy Marshal Lannan and Capt. Freeburger were also. The Marshal said he had information that Williams was a thief and ordered at once an inspection of the rogue’s gallery, where a photograph of the colored man, numbered 1105, was found. On the back was the Miranda; “George H. Williams, arrested February 20, 1877, by policeman Dietz, central district, for larceny.” On March 2, of the same year, Williams was sent to the penitentiary for four years. He had been there before and was only free a short time after serving a sentence when apprehended by policeman Dietz. The Marshal sold Williams his own photograph, whereupon he again said he was sick. Then the Marshal told him of a statement the police had regarding the assault, to which Williams listened attentively, and on its conclusion said many of the details were incorrect. He eagerly told his side of the story and was taken to a private room, where in the presence of witnesses, he made his statement, admitting the assault for robbery, but claimed no other criminal intent. His statement which was recorded by the Marshal, was subsequently as follows: “my name is George Williams, Esther saw her sitting under a tree. She had the pocketbook in her hand, I passed her and turned, I snatched the pocketbook, and she threw her hands up. I struck her in the face; the pocketbook then fell to the ground. I picked up two silver dollars and one silver quarter. I then left her, and started to go out of the park, and was arrested by police before I left the park.”

By Marshall fray – “did she offer any resistance?” Williams – “no – serve.” Marshall Fray – “how do you account for the bruises on her face?” Answer – “I did not strike her. As I snatched the pocketbook out of her hand she held her hand up and my hand slipped and struck her on the face.” Marshall Fray – “did you not intend to strike or?” Williams – “no Sir” Williams is 29 years old. He is 5 feet 6 ½ inches tall and weighs 160 pounds. His skin is very dark. There is a large scar on his left cheek beside his ear.

Mrs. Mary J. Friendly, of West Woodbury, the victim of the assault, was reported Lee in proving by her physician Dr. Daniel W. Smith. Justice Harry T. The alley had fixed on Monday next for a hearing. On Wednesday night a party of men from Woodbury went to Towsontown with the determination to take the prisoner from jail and swing them up on the nearest tree, but owing to the failure of promised aid from an organize forced to appear from Woodbury to support the party decided to wait until all doubt was removed as to the identification of the prisoner is Miss Ripley’s assailant. The feeling and Woodbury is intense, and the general impression there is that if the prisoner is identified thoroughly at the hearing at justice dailies he will never reach Towsontown. Miss Ridley’s expresses herself positively that the prisoner is the right man.

The presence of men from Woodbury in Towsontown on Wednesday night was probably known to the County authorities they are and was one of the considerations influencing Mr. Burke to give the man up to Marshall Fray so as to have him in the safe hands of the Baltimore police the prisoner was kept in a cell at the central police station last night, and today will be sent to the Baltimore city jail to await the action of the County authorities.

Capt. to sell, detectives Freeburger and Pumphrey and County policeman Chase O’Neill, Chase Bowersox and William Kennedy and some city officers spent a good portion of yesterday afternoon at the place in Druid Hill Park where the assault took place, hunting for Mrs. Wrigley’s pocketbook, which was thrown away by her assailant.


c patrolman john harris

Patrolman John Harris

3 July, 1925 - Patrolman JOHN E. HARRIS - him patrolman John E Harris of Druid Hill Park police died yesterday in West Baltimore General Hospital from pneumonia which is said to have been caused by injuries received at last Monday when he was struck by an automobile operated by a student driver he was 73 years old. -At the hour of Mr. Harris’s death William Norris president of the Park board and conference with officers and members of the automobile trade Association refused to resend the boards order by which persons learning to drive automobiles would be prohibited from using roads in the public park the order was issued by Mr. Norris as a result of the accident in which officer Harris was hurt. The conference ended with the Association deciding to abide by the ruling of the board. Student driver held Harry Siegel 2366 McCulloch Street who under the tutelage of alley apple sign 6 North Bond St. was operating the machine which is said to have struck the patrolman, was released in the custody of his attorney at the Northwestern police station pending the action of Dr. J Terrell Hennessey corner Siegel was charged with causing officer Harris’s death. He had been released after the accident in the custody of his attorney. The police said Apple stain also may be arrested, but no immediate action against him has been taken. (*10) 


The Sun (1837-1987); Jul 4, 1925;

pg. 3

Patrolman struck by a car in park, DIES

student motorist held in death of John E Harris

Ban Will Not Be should be heart upon a guitar player Lifted

North after conference Declares roads will remain closed to learners

Patrolman John E. Harris, of Juneau Park police, died yesterday at the West Baltimore General Hospital from pneumonia, which is said to have been caused by injuries received last Monday when he was struck by an automobile operated by a student driver. He was 73 years old

at the hour of Mr. Harris’s death William L. Norris, president of the park board and conference with officers and members of the automobile trade Association refused to resend the boards order by which persons learning to drive automobiles would be prohibited from using roads in the public parks. The order was issued by Mr. Norris as a result of the accident in which Mr. Harris was hurt. The conference ended with the Association deciding to abide by the ruling of the board.

Student Driver Held

Harry Siegel, 2366 McCulloch Street, who under the tutelage of Eli Apple Stein, 6 North Bond St., was operating the machine which is said to have struck the patrolman, was released in the custody of his attorney at the Northwestern police station pending the action of Dr. J. Tyrell Hensley coroner. Siegel was charged with causing Mr. Harris’s death. He had been released after the accident in the custody of his attorney. The police said Apple stain who may be arrested, but no immediate action against him was contemplated.

Conference Called Helpful

Mr. Nora said his conference with the officers and members of the automobile trade Association had been “very helpful.” He asserted the automobile salesman were of the opinion that the practice of teaching novices how to drive in the parks was dangerous to pedestrians. An officer of the Association and Mr. Nora’s will tout roads adjacent to Baltimore next week in an effort to locate territory available for beginners.

The salesman contended Mr. Nora said, that the roads of Druid Hill Park had been used by student drivers because of their proximity to the automobile trade centers of the city.

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Park Police mountedpark police mounted 1942

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The Sun (1837-1987); Aug 1, 1956;

pg. 8

Power is given to Park police McKeldin grants them law enforcement authority

Governor McKeldin has signed special commissions for 21 Baltimore Park police members granting them law – enforcement authority in three areas in Baltimore and Anne Arundel County’s.

The properties involved are Fort Smallwood Park, and Anne Arundel County and Robert E Lee Park at Lake real and grandma Memorial Park both in Baltimore County although Baltimore’s Park police currently have jurisdiction in the sections, their powers of arrest apparently have been of a “quasilegal” nature.

From City Charter

The Park police derived their authority from Baltimore city charter and are under the rule of the Park board.

Yesterday both Charles A book superintendent of the Bureau of Parks and Lieut. Millard F Livingston acting head of the police unit admitted that the authority of the Park police to operate outside Baltimore city has been periodically questioned.

Explaining his request to the governor which resulted in the authorizing commissions. Mr. Hook said “we’re just playing safe.”

Might have been “invalid”

The superintendent also admitted that if a defendant who had been arrested by Park police in one of these areas had challenged the arresting authority of the officers the courts might have ruled the arrest invalid.

The new authority from governor McKeldin appointing the 21 officers as “special policeman for the state of Maryland” in three recreational zones should end any such controversy. Mr. Hook said

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Balti Park police K9
The Park Police

The Sun (1837-1987); May 15, 1956;

pg. 14

The Park Police

when the Baltimore Park police make news as they are currently doing, it comes as a surprise to most people to learn that they are not a branch of the city Police Department, but an autonomous body, owing allegiance to the Park board and the Mayor, and not the police Commissioner. In practice, they work very closely with the regular police, use the police radio service, request help from the police Commissioner for special assignments and divide with the police department with jurisdictions over the islands of park property here and there in the city.

Technically, they control the policing of the stripes of grass in Eutaw place, the railings around the battle monument in the fountains in Mount Vernon Pl. In practice they patrol Mount Vernon Pl. only between midnight and 8 AM the city police on the other hand, do not enter the parks unless they are in hot pursuit or are invited to do so by the Park police on such occasions as a big game at the stadium or when there are very large holiday crowds in the parks.

The city budget allows for 118 officers and men on the park force. Whose Capt., as head of a separate department, is paid a little more and other police captains. The rookie cops are paid less than the regular entrance to the police force: $3500 a year against 4000 for a third-grade city patrolman.

The origins of the force date back to the beginning of this century when the police commissioners declined to police the parks because he said his force was not sufficient, and a city law and powered the Park board to recruit its own law enforcement officers, who also acted as Park caretakers, a role that is now been separated from police duties.

From time to time, it has been suggested that the Park police should be united with the regular police force. An effort in 1949, made on the recommendations of the Mayor’s budget advisory committee, following a survey by the public administrators service, was tabled by the Park board. The survey recommended that a small Park police force merely for the protection of property should be retained, but that other functions of the Park police should be returned to the police department. This might be a useful moment for an Imperial review of the whole system of dual police control of the city, a system which on the face of it seems a little out of date.

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Balti Park police K9


The Sun (1837-1987); May 25, 1956;
pg. 52

Conspiracy, malfeasance, and obstruction of justice laid to chief and Sgt. Savard also presented

Capt. G. Gordon Gaeng, chief of Baltimore Park police, and Sgt. Kenneth of the O’Connor yesterday were accused by the grand jury of conspiracy, malfeasance, and obstruction of justice.

The accusations against the two officers of the park force resulted from a probe into the matter in which Capt. Gaeng and Sgt. O’Connor investigated a woman’s complaint that she was molested by a park patrolman.

The grand jury also returned an accusing him of assaulting Mrs. Anna Mae Nichols, Negro, mother of two children, last August 29 and Gwen falls Park.

Officials of the park presentment against patrolman George A Savard, accusing him of assaulting Miss Anna Mae Nichols, Negro, mother of two children, last August 29 and Gwen falls Park.

Officials of the city’s Park board announced late yesterday that Lieut. Millard Livingston would be in command of the park police force pending the outcome of criminal charges

Released On Bail

Both Capt. Gaeng and Sgt. O’Connor were released on $1000 bail each late yesterday. The bond was posted by Maurice Berman, professional bondsman, with a Scherr, deputy clerk of the criminal court.

Charles A. Hook, superintendent of Parks announced later that both police officers will be suspended from duty as soon as he is formally notified of the charges.

Soured, already under suspension, is at liberty in $500 bail, posted last week in Northwestern police court after a warrant charging him with assault was obtained by Mrs. Nichols

Anselm Sodaro states attorney, who had assisted the grand jury in the probe along with Jay Robert Brown. Announced that he has ordered a dismissal of the police court charge against soured, in view of the grand jury’s action.

Held a Lineup

Seven weeks after Ms. Nichols lodged her complaint with the Park police last August, Capt. Gaeng conducted a lineup from which the number one suspect was excluded, it was revealed last week. The captain explained his failure to place the suspected policeman in the phony line up by saying that he believed Miss Nichols may have been trying to “finger” one of his men.

Ms. Nichols viewed a second line up in Baltimore police headquarters last week and Savard it was charged a few hours later.

Sgt. O’Connor’s and Savard are said to be related to each other.

The three present mints against of the two police officers contain for specific allegations of failure to perform their duty.

They are:

1 failing and neglecting to promptly charge severed with making an assault upon Ms. Nichols and conduct of police lineup of persons suspected of the assault

2 failing and neglecting to play severed in the line-up although he was the principal suspect at the time.

3 failing and neglecting to report to and appoint the Baltimore city Police Department with the facts that “a crime had been committed” by Savard and

4 failing to properly conduct and complete investigation of the charges against the Savard

Conspiracy Charge

the three resentments accused the captain and Sgt. of conspiracy together preventing charges of assault against Savard by means of the four allocated acts of omission, of attempting to obstruct justice in that manner and a willfully neglecting to perform their duty by the same for means.

Mr. Spadaro said indictments will be prepared promptly, and the cases will be set for arraignment in criminal court.

The pigeonholed complaint of Mrs. Nichols came to light recently when two patrolmen of the park force Baird the inaction of their superiors.

Mr.’s narrow promptly took up the inquiry, question more than 20 witnesses and finally laid the entire matter before the grand jury.

During his probe, the state attorney blocked any attempts by Capt. Gaines to conduct a second line-up of his own Park headquarters of the department

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12036511 10205849199452628 2569468850398596920 n


The Sun (1837-1987); Aug 15, 1958;

pg. 40

Mayor takes no stand on police plan

Declined to come out for or against city of merger idea

Mayor D’Alesandro refuse yesterday to take an outright stand for or against a merger of the Park police with the Baltimore city Police Department.

The mayor would say only that “the Baltimore city charter vest all power concerning the Park police in the Park board”

during the most recent previous controversy over a possible merger of the two forces the Park Board opposed such a move.

Leon Abramson, president of the city Council, said that at least for the present, he opposed any merger

Stands by report

the “assistant mayor” said he still stood by a 1957 report of the councils the judiciary committee which did not approve a resolution requesting a study of a need for merger.

The latest calls for elimination of the Park police as a separate force followed the murder of a 57-year-old woman whose body was found on the Clifton Park golf course early August 5

governor McKeldin, on returning from abroad earlier this week, said he favored a merger. But that his opinion was not based on the Clifton Park crime.

Matter of jurisdiction

the difference in attitude between the city and state officials underlines the fact that the merger argument is partly a matter of city versus state jurisdiction.

The Baltimore Police Department is under administrative control of the state. It’s Commissioner is appointed by the governor.

But the Park police is not connected with the Police Department, although the two forces cooperate closely. The Park police owes its allegiance to the Park board and the mayor, not to the police Commissioner. Mr. Abramson said a merger “is not as easy as it sounds. It requires action by the legislator as well as charter amendments”

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The Sun (1837-1987); Jun 28, 1959;

pg. 40

Ending of Park Police Sought

Rubenstein would merge city departments

City Councilman Leon Rubenstein Democrat fifth district will sponsor a resolution tomorrow urging absorption of the Park police by Baltimore’s regular Police Department.

Although the Council is scheduled to recess for the summer after tomorrow’s meeting Mr. Rubenstein is hoping his measure can be the subject of hearings during the summer months.

Sure of Recommendation

He will ask that it be referred to the parks and recreation committee and that the committee consider the measurement carefully before the Council returns in the fall.

Although Mr. Rubenstein favors ending the separate Park police force, his resolution asked the mayor to appoint a commission to study the practicality of MERGER and Park police into the regular Police Department.

The Council and said he convinced that any independent commission will recommend such a step after studying the situation.

He recommends prompt action, declaring it favorable commission report would then necessitate the legislative action to enlarge the Police Department and also a special referendum in 1960 would be required to amended the city charter.

Transfer in Grade

Mr. Rubenstein would transfer all present Park police to regular force with no loss in grade, rank, seniority and pension rights.

According to Mr. Rubenstein the city’s Park commission was first granted the right to preserve peace in parklands by the city charter of 1862 the purpose of the power was to police of the new Druid Hill Park, which at the time was wholly beyond the city limits and thus beyond the authority of city police he said.

Says Reason is Gone

the city not only absorbed Druid Hill Park but grew to have many other parks – all the while continuing the system of separate Park police force, the councilman said in a prepared statement.

He contends the reason for the separate Park police force no longer exists.

Mr. Rubenstein arguing for an end to the separate Park force, says:

1. A single police system will be more efficient

2. Economies will be possible

3. “Duplicity of command” will be avoided.

4. Better distribution of policing throughout the city will be possible.

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Tawes Approves Merger Of Park Police, City Force
The Sun (1837-1987); Mar 31, 1960;

pg. 36

Tawes Approves Merger Of Park Police, City Force

Governor Tawes has “given his blessing” to the proposed merger of the Park police with the Baltimore police force, city officials said yesterday.

Dr. Frank C Marino, president of the Park board, reports that development after he and other officials conferred with the governor at his Baltimore office.

The governor has agreed to take administrative steps that city legal aids have said are necessary in order to bring about the merger. Dr. Marino said

Hepbron at Meeting

he reported that James M Hepbron, police Commissioner who was also present at the meeting, has agreed to assign one of his inspectors to survey the Park police force and arrange for its integration into the city’s police department.

The inspector will spend part of his time with the Park police to determine which duties each man is best suited for and to discover which members need further training.

Dr. Marino said Governor Tawes is “with us 100%” on the city plan to merge the two police forces by January 1.

Agreement by the governor is necessary for several reasons, according to an opinion by Harrison L. Winter. City solicitor.

Police Strength Up

since the city police, which operates under the jurisdiction of the state government, are very near their us authorized strength, the written consent of both Governor Tawes and Mayor Grady must be obtained to bring the park officers in.

Mr. winter also discovered that the Park police derive their authority in Park property outside the city through special commissions given them by the governor. Similar commissions would have to be given to some city policeman so they could patrol those parks.

City officials will confer shortly with officials of Baltimore and Anne Arundel County’s to obtain their consent to use the city police to patrol city parks in their territories. Dr. Marino added.

He repeated his determination to merge the 126 man Park police force, which has been an arm of the Park board, with the city department by January 1. That date was selected because it is the beginning of the next city fiscal year

in Outlining the administrative steps that he said could accomplish the merger, Mr. Winter recommended that the city seek legislation in the Gen. assembly next year confirming the actions taken.

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January 1 Is Ruled O.K. As Date Of Police Merger

The Sun (1837-1987); Mar 3, 1960;
pg. 36

January 1 Is Ruled O.K. As Date Of Police Merger

Merger of Park police into the Baltimore Police Department can be accomplished next January 1, the city solicitor ruled yesterday.

Dispelled widely held assumptions that the merger might take a year or two, the city chief law officers said no state or city legislation must be passed before affecting it.

Harrison L Winter city solicitor, and Morton Al Goldner, assistant, recommended the January 1 date primarily because it is the beginning of the next city fiscal year.

Legislation Do

Several items of legislation, including an amendment to the city charter, are proposed to be made later. But the law officers said the merger could go ahead before passage of the legislation.

Merger of Park police into city force has been talked about for many years. The proposal gathered new force last fall when Mayor Grady and Dr. Frank C Marino president of the Park board, endorsed it.

After reading the decision, Dr. Marino seconded the recommendations.

Park Board Has Voted

“For the best interest of the city and the men of two departments, the quicker it’s done the better.” He said, “I would like to have it all done by the first of the year.”

The Park board has already voted in favor of the merger. James M Hepbron, police Commissioner, said last fall that he favored the move, after seeming reluctant about it when it was previously proposed to several years ago.

A resolution calling for a commission to study legislation necessary for the merger and a proposed charter amendment to accomplish it have been pending in the city Council since last fall.

Mr. Winter and his associates have been studying this since the law relating to the Park police. A force independent of the city department and responsible only to the Park board.

Their recommendations were forwarded yesterday to Dr. Marino.

Several important administrative steps will have to be taken before January 1 to accomplish the merger, Mr. Winter reported.

They include obtaining a written consent of the Mayor and of governor Tawes to the inclusion of Park policeman in the city department pending action by the state legislature increasing the city forces authorized strength.

Since it appears that Park policeman exercise their authority and parks outside the city limits by means of special commissions from the governor, Mr. Winter said, similar authority should be obtained for some city policeman.

He said an amendment to the charter should be submitted immediately to the Council for passage in time for ratification in the general election next November simply as a matter of “good legal housekeeping.”

Suggestion Made

legislation should be prepared for submission to the Gen. assembly next year, confirming the transfer of Park policeman to the city department and granting the police Commissioner concurrent authority over city parks in the counties. Mr. winter said.

“In this connection, it would seem to us to be highly desirable to consult with the legislative representatives of neighboring subdivisions in which Park property is located to reach an agreement” in advance on an acceptable amendment to the state law limiting the city departments authority to Baltimore’s borders, he added.

Taking the legal problems one by one, Mr. winter found that none of the necessarily an obstacle to swift action on the merger.

“Concurrent Jurisdiction”

although the charter “might at first blush same” to give soul policing authority in the parks to the Park board, he said the Police Department is granted “concurrent jurisdiction” over parkland within the city.

He said a court of appeals the ruling in 1902 and administrative practice at least since 1947 “has been for the city police to exercise authority within the parks their respective of a request from your department to do so.”

An amendment to the charter confirming the charge would be “desirable from the standpoint of good legal housekeeping.” Mr. winter said. But is “unnecessary as a condition proceeded to affecting the contemplated merger.”

The authorized strength of the Police Department is fixed by Gen. assembly, Mr. winter continued. But the state law also provides that the police Commissioner can exceed that number with the written approval of the governor and mayor he said.

Since some city parkland, like Fort Smallwood, is located outside its borders, the city police will need authority to take over the duties of Park policeman in those areas.

“The Basic Question”

“The basic question of the authority of Park police to act as conservatories of the peace has never been conclusively resolved, and our and quarries have this closed that Park police act as conservatories of the peace in park areas outside the city by virtue of commissions issued by the governor as special police, rather than by virtue of their being Park police.” Mr. Winter said

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City Stays On Fringe Of Big News In 1960

The Sun (1837-1987); Jan 1, 1961;
pg. 14 City Stays On Fringe Of Big News In 1960

Though generally on the tinges of big news, except in sports, Baltimore made the national impact in 1960 by beating the biggest bunch of people in Texas.

Preliminarily senses figures showed that Houston Edges Baltimore as the country’s six largest city. Hordes of the uncounted became accounted for later in the year though and Baltimore maintained its position by a margin of 805 people 939,024 people to Houston’s 938,219

Something to ponder Texans being the way they are used it is something to think about for 1970

But back to the fringes; it is a sad obligation to report in 8 years and story that in a surprising to defeat the regal Colts were shoved to the outskirts of the professional football court

Young Orioles provided some consolation, rising Phoenix like from sixth place in the American League in 1959 to 2nd place in 1960 a walloping outfielder could mean the pennant this year baseball buffs believe crime in Baltimore rocketed along about as always – quite a bit of it, but nothing spectacular. The 111 murders surpassed the totals of the previous four years, but police made arrests and all but two of the killings.

A federal grand jury indicted Melvin D. Reese Junior, 31 of Hyattsville a musician in the kidnapping murder of Mrs. Carol the Jackson Junior 27 and her five-year-old daughter Susan and in shallow grave the Jackson’s, of Apple Grove Virginia were found in March 1959 in a shallow grave in the Gambrill section of Anne Arundel County federal agents arrested Reese a West Memphis, arc, in June and brought him here for indictment. Virginia officials also charge Reese with murdering Mr. Jackson 29 and other Jackson daughter Janet 18 months.

In addition Anne Arundel officials charge Reese with the 1957 murder of Mrs. Margaret Harold she was killed in the Gambrill section while parked with a soldier.

Reese had not come to trial because of pretrial motions.

In a not quite murder, it Puerto Rican tavern operator who formerly danced on the block was not quite convicted.

Judge James K Cullen gave Miss Marino raise 30 probation before verdict on charges of attempting to commit murder, conspiring to commit murder and trying to hire an undercover detective to kill a disc jockey who had gone back to his wife.

The purported victim was Ray Davis, of Glen Burnie. But the loser was Mrs. Davis. She was fined $50 may six after finding her husband and threatening him with a pistol. She said he had not been home for days. Fraudulent claims for welfare payment constituted the longer continual court action of the year in Baltimore. More than 250 persons were indicted during the year. Payments on the fraudulent claims amounted to about $200,000.

Most of those convicted were women who maintained they were without support because their husband had deserted them, though it was proved that they were being supported by other men.

One such mother of nine was sentenced to four years imprisonment. Welfare officials noticed a decline in the number of other applicants.

Inmates of Marilyn penal institutions grew reckless in August and about 1600 of them went on strike.

Inside workers complained that they should have the same sentence reduction benefits the prisoners working outside were getting. A new Board of corrections ruled allowing prisoners working outside five days a month to deduct the five days from their sentence on August 8 see Fernando Sievert Atty. Gen. ruled that no prisoners could have the five-day deduction. The inmates dude and rattled their cell bars but ended the strike.

As has been the custom for three years previously, Blue Cross and Blue Shield rates went up in 1960 the Blue Cross increase effective October 1 average 17.9% the Blue Shield rates rose by as much as 33.4%.

Besides reestablishing Baltimore in sixth place among the nation cities, the 1960 census gave Marilyn another state in the house of representatives.

The new congressional district will be the eighth, and its representative will be elected in 1962 politician said last month that the A’s should be carved from the populous fifth, which covers southern Maryland.

All three of Baltimore’s Congressman – all Democrat – one again in the November 8 election.

Baltimore gave Sen. John F. Kennedy and 88,000 majority over vice Pres. Nixon for the presidency and the state also gave a majority to Kennedy.

The state electoral vote to establish an 11th judge municipal court in Baltimore, replacing the police and traffic court system. State voters also expanded the court of appeals by two judges. In the city, judges J Gilbert Pendergrass and Delaney Forster were returned to the supreme bench and judges Harry L Rogers and William T Tippit Junior to people’s court.

School Plans Okayed

Voters also approved a $22 million school construction bond issued to approve merging Park police with city police. They rejected several bond issues including one for $4 million for the expansion of the cramped Walters Art Gallery.

The city jail expanded, new wings costing $3 million were dedicated late in the fall.

Construction began on the $3 million mercy hospital at St. Paul Place and Lexington Street and workers completed the steel frame for the 20 story for under bed structure.

The Civic Center had trouble with its plans, but it also made firm progress. Workers began clearing the 5-acre site last February and finished long before the year ended.

Last spring the architect was asked to revise his design for the $12 million project to include a permanent stage suitable for Opera. He said he would have to eliminate the distinctive pleated roof for economy reasons. But later in the year, the Civic Center commission voted to restore the plates. While keeping the states.

Definite Progress

There was definite progress, also, on the adjoining Charles center, in March the urban renewal and housing commission chose Metropolitan structures Corporation of Chicago to put up the first building.

It will be a 23 story office building designed by Ludwig Miles Vander role, and will be at trolls and Lexington streets on the site of the old O’Neill’s department store. On August 4 the city brought the first property for clearance in the center, at 15 W. Lexington.

After some torturous detouring for most of the year motors finally were able in December to zip across the St. Paul Street bridge at the Pennsylvania Station the old bridge was closed last January, the new bridge costing $1.8 million was built to give greater CLARENCE over the Jones falls Expressway.

Construction on the expressway progress between the Pennsylvania Station area and Coldspring Lane causing the closing of two other bridges. The 29th St. and Cedar Avenue. The Cedar Avenue bridge closed in June and reopened in September: the 29th St. bridge closed in March and will not open until 1962

Resident Annoyed

One annoyed Baltimorean wrote to a newspaper: “with the closing of the Cedar Avenue bridge, Baltimoreans witnessed a second predawn coup which effectively sealed off Hampton and lower North Baltimore from the West approaches.”

Accompanied by a willing and noshing of teeth by nearby residents, contractors filled in Hamden reservoir for an interchange to the expressway.

Arguments continued over the route of the East – West Expressway. Someone it the “Chinese wall” pass near Chase Street others one of the expressways near the inner harbor.

A section of northern Parkway was opened. It runs westward from old Harford road through Mount Pleasant golf course to the Lynn Road. Construction on the Western and it began.

There were many changes during the year and business and financial circles.

Best on steel company announced plans in March to expand its Sparrows Point plant capacity by 10%. Already the world’s largest the plant will have an and get capacity of 9 million tons a year 18 tons a minute after the expansion, which will cost an estimated $179 million.

Last Martin Plane

The Martin company went out of the airplane business after 48 years, the longest continuous history of such manufacturing in the country. On December 20 the company completed its last plane and said it will concentrate on missiles. Electronics, nuclear energy and designs in space vehicles. The company moved to Baltimore from California 1929.

Having slipped behind Philadelphia in the amount of foreign tonnage passing through the port Baltimore regained that the number two position in the United States.

In November the Marilyn port authority said that for the first six months of 1960, Baltimore handled 11,546,000 long tons second only to New York’s 21,000,192 long tons. The authority expected Baltimore’s foreign trade to be about 7.3% higher for the year than in 1959.

Toward the end of the year the thriving Chesapeake and Ohio railway claimed 55% of the stock of the ounce pound Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The Chelsea, smaller but sounder than the BNO, said it was extending its stock exchange offers to February 2 and expected to pick up 10% more.

Merger Lists

Fidelity – Baltimore national bank and Marilyn trust company merged into the Baltimore national bank. Maryland’s largest and among other mergers the Brunswick Corporation acquired the Ones yacht company.

It will not hurt until this year but last month the city Council imposed several new taxes to meet Baltimore’s $292,301,000 budget the budget is $38,666,000 higher than in 1960 the Council raise the tax on commercial users of gas and electric from 8 to 9% established a 3% residential phone use tax, and imposed a recordation Levy of a dollar 10 for each $500 valuation and an annual fee of $15 for dairy farm supplying the city. The property tax remained at $3.60 for each hundred dollar valuation.

The schools were plagued with one more problem than has been customary in recent years. In October William J Murray third dropped out of the ninth grade at Wilburn Junior high school. He said he was an atheist and objected to having to listen to Bible readings and the Lord’s prayer in opening exercises rulings made the state department of education ruled November 2 that Bible readings is constitutional but pupils who object may be excused. The city school board made a similar ruling in the month. By last month only six pupils had asked to be excused, though Miss Madeleine E Murray, mother of William, filed a suit in Superior Court asking for elimination of segregation opening exercises from public schools.

Jewish leaders asked in December that Hanukkah observances be eliminated from public schools.

Dr. George Beebe brain, who succeeded Dr. John H Fisher as a school superintendent last January, issued no formal orders on the Jewish request but left it up to school principals.

Except the hurricane Donna in September, whether has generally been unspectacular. The hurricane will Ocean City Maryland leaving a number of resort structures roofless. Being only on the fringes this time, was a good thing for Baltimore. Which was flooded in some sections by 5 inches of rain.

On December 11 and December 12 a total of 14.1 inches of snow fell to set a record for a 24 hour. Messy and stubborn remnants of the snowfall linger yet

For persons who are meant much to the city died during the year.

Robert R O’Connor 63 died March 4 he had been state's attorney for Baltimore for three terms, Atty. Gen., governor for two terms and United States Sen. for six years.

On August 31 Howard Jackson died. He had been mayor for four terms, longer than anyone else he was 83 years old.

Philip B Perlman 70 died July 31 he was a former solicitor Gen. of the United States. He had helped write the Democratic platform at the Los Angeles convention shortly before his death.

The most Rev. Jerome D Sebastian, auxiliary Bishop of Baltimore, died October 11 he was 64 years old. For years he had also been perished priest of St. Elizabeth church in East Baltimore

  31E16 001g 2

12036511 10205849199452628 2569468850398596920 n


The Sun (1837-1987); Aug 15, 1958;

pg. 40

Mayor takes no stand on police plan

Declined to come out for or against city of merger idea

Mayor D’Alesandro refuse yesterday to take an outright stand for or against a merger of the Park police with the Baltimore city Police Department.

The mayor would say only that “the Baltimore city charter vest all power concerning the Park police in the Park board”

during the most recent previous controversy over a possible merger of the two forces the Park Board opposed such a move.

Leon Abramson, president of the city Council, said that at least for the present, he opposed any merger

Stands by report

the “assistant mayor” said he still stood by a 1957 report of the councils the judiciary committee which did not approve a resolution requesting a study of a need for merger.

The latest calls for elimination of the Park police as a separate force followed the murder of a 57-year-old woman whose body was found on the Clifton Park golf course early August 5

governor McKeldin, on returning from abroad earlier this week, said he favored a merger. But that his opinion was not based on the Clifton Park crime.

Matter of jurisdiction

the difference in attitude between the city and state officials underlines the fact that the merger argument is partly a matter of city versus state jurisdiction.

The Baltimore Police Department is under administrative control of the state. It’s Commissioner is appointed by the governor.

But the Park police is not connected with the Police Department, although the two forces cooperate closely. The Park police owes its allegiance to the Park board and the mayor, not to the police Commissioner. Mr. Abramson said a merger “is not as easy as it sounds. It requires action by the legislator as well as charter amendments”

1 blue devider 800 8 72

The Sun (1837-1987); Jun 28, 1959;

pg. 40

Ending of Park Police Sought

Rubenstein would merge city departments

City Councilman Leon Rubenstein Democrat fifth district will sponsor a resolution tomorrow urging absorption of the Park police by Baltimore’s regular Police Department.

Although the Council is scheduled to recess for the summer after tomorrow’s meeting Mr. Rubenstein is hoping his measure can be the subject of hearings during the summer months.

Sure of Recommendation

He will ask that it be referred to the parks and recreation committee and that the committee consider the measurement carefully before the Council returns in the fall.

Although Mr. Rubenstein favors ending the separate Park police force, his resolution asked the mayor to appoint a commission to study the practicality of MERGER and Park police into the regular Police Department.

The Council and said he convinced that any independent commission will recommend such a step after studying the situation.

He recommends prompt action, declaring it favorable commission report would then necessitate the legislative action to enlarge the Police Department and also a special referendum in 1960 would be required to amended the city charter.

Transfer in Grade

Mr. Rubenstein would transfer all present Park police to regular force with no loss in grade, rank, seniority and pension rights.

According to Mr. Rubenstein the city’s Park commission was first granted the right to preserve peace in parklands by the city charter of 1862 the purpose of the power was to police of the new Druid Hill Park, which at the time was wholly beyond the city limits and thus beyond the authority of city police he said.

Says Reason is Gone

the city not only absorbed Druid Hill Park but grew to have many other parks – all the while continuing the system of separate Park police force, the councilman said in a prepared statement.

He contends the reason for the separate Park police force no longer exists.

Mr. Rubenstein arguing for an end to the separate Park force, says:

1. A single police system will be more efficient

2. Economies will be possible

3. “Duplicity of command” will be avoided.

4. Better distribution of policing throughout the city will be possible.

1 blue devider 800 8 72

Tawes Approves Merger Of Park Police, City Force
The Sun (1837-1987); Mar 31, 1960;

pg. 36

Tawes Approves Merger Of Park Police, City Force

Governor Tawes has “given his blessing” to the proposed merger of the Park police with the Baltimore police force, city officials said yesterday.

Dr. Frank C Marino, president of the Park board, reports that development after he and other officials conferred with the governor at his Baltimore office.

The governor has agreed to take administrative steps that city legal aids have said are necessary in order to bring about the merger. Dr. Marino said

Hepbron at Meeting

he reported that James M Hepbron, police Commissioner who was also present at the meeting, has agreed to assign one of his inspectors to survey the Park police force and arrange for its integration into the city’s police department.

The inspector will spend part of his time with the Park police to determine which duties each man is best suited for and to discover which members need further training.

Dr. Marino said Governor Tawes is “with us 100%” on the city plan to merge the two police forces by January 1.

Agreement by the governor is necessary for several reasons, according to an opinion by Harrison L. Winter. City solicitor.

Police Strength Up

since the city police, which operates under the jurisdiction of the state government, are very near their us authorized strength, the written consent of both Governor Tawes and Mayor Grady must be obtained to bring the park officers in.

Mr. winter also discovered that the Park police derive their authority in Park property outside the city through special commissions given them by the governor. Similar commissions would have to be given to some city policeman so they could patrol those parks.

City officials will confer shortly with officials of Baltimore and Anne Arundel County’s to obtain their consent to use the city police to patrol city parks in their territories. Dr. Marino added.

He repeated his determination to merge the 126 man Park police force, which has been an arm of the Park board, with the city department by January 1. That date was selected because it is the beginning of the next city fiscal year

in Outlining the administrative steps that he said could accomplish the merger, Mr. Winter recommended that the city seek legislation in the Gen. assembly next year confirming the actions taken.

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How to Dispose of Old Police Items

If you come into possession of Police items from an Estate or Death of a Police Officer Family Member and do not know how to properly dispose of these items please contact: Retired Detective Ken Driscoll - Please dispose of POLICE Items: Badges, Guns, Uniforms, Documents, PROPERLY so they won’t be used IMPROPERLY. 

Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department.

Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

Copyright © 2012 Baltimore City Police History

Class Pics

Friday, 07 February 2020 05:16

Academy Graduation Pictures

class unkAcademy Class Photo News

This site is pleased and honored to have the largest collection of BPD Academy photos. If your class photo is missing, please submit a copy to keep this collection growing. We have been requested numerous times to supply an officer a copy of his class photo which had been lost or damaged and we are very happy to help. One thing that many of us hold dear to our heart is the memory of our graduating from the police academy. Our class photo shows all of our classmates and brings back those memories.

Contact:  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you can help supply a photo or if you need your class photo and it is here on the site.




Humbly recognizing the responsibilities entrusted to me as a member of the Baltimore Police Department, an organization dedicated to the preservation of human life and property, I pledge myself to perform my duties honestly and faithfully to the best of my ability and without fear, favor, or prejudice.

I shall aid those in danger or distress, and shall strive always to make my City, State and Country a safer place in which to live. I shall wage unceasing war against crime in all forms, and shall consider no sacrifice too great in the performance of my duty.

I shall obey the laws of the United States of America, and the State of Maryland and shall support and defend their constitutions against all enemies whomsoever, foreign and domestic.

I shall always be loyal to and uphold the honor of my organization, my state, and my country.

In one of its definitions, the word "ethics" encompasses the standard of conduct governing all members of a profession. Police exist to preserve law and order. The Greek philosopher Plato wrote that good government is wise, brave, temperate and just. This statement of ethics for police officers establishes broad standards to help police accomplish their mission in a manner which comports with good and wise government. Citizens who earn their police badges voluntarily bear the public trust. They are faithfully charged to protect the safety and the rights of fellow members of society. To provide these special protections, police officers carry special powers. They have the authority to investigate other people, to abridge their normal liberties, and to use force when necessary. Two basic constraints limit use of this authority.

First, it is wrong for police to use their office for personal profit or gain, wrong for them to accept any favor which places their own advantage above the welfare of the public. Second, it is wrong for officers to violate the Constitution or laws in performance of their work. Officers must also bring to their work personal qualities which can spring only from within their personal fabric. They must appreciate and care for the needs of the people they serve. They must exercise common sense in a manner that conveys common decency. They should never render themselves needlessly to danger; they should maintain their physical fitness and their skillfulness in using the tools of their work. Fulfilling this public trust is demanding work. It brings disappointment, weariness and stress. But these are the facts of life in this profession each officer has chosen. But it also provides officers the opportunity to contribute in an immeasurable way to the common good. The Police Department is obligated to provide the best training and support for its officers throughout their careers. The Department will strive to the utmost to provide clear policies and adequate resources for every officer to accomplish the work we have accepted together. Integrity The public demands that the integrity of its law enforcement officers be above reproach. The dishonesty of just one officer may impair public confidence and cast suspicion upon the Department as a whole. Succumbing to even minor temptations can generate a malignancy which will ultimately destroy an individual's effectiveness and which may well contribute to the corruption of fellow officers. Officers must scrupulously avoid any conduct which might compromise their integrity or the integrity of those with whom they work. No officer should seek or accept any special consideration or privilege, nor anything of value for which others are expected to pay, solely because they are police officers, or for performing their duty in some manner inconsistent with the highest regard for integrity.

Respect for Rights

A broad range of rights and privileges are afforded each individual by law and nature. Liberty is maintained for the most part by our constant attention toward preservation of a consistent exercise of these rights and privileges and through mutual respect for every person's exercise of his or her rights and privileges. However, the police officer must contend with a persistent flow of personal conflicts, both legal and illegal. To resolve these differences, the police enforce a body of laws within the Constitution's assurance that all of us - regardless of economic status, sex, race or creed - receive equal and fair treatment. In so doing, officers often face ambiguous situations, particularly in trying to protect the rights of a victim and an accused. To carry out this mission, police officers have the power to search and arrest, to use force, and to investigate and incarcerate. As police, we must use these tools properly with no abuse of our authority. Decency, security, and liberty all demand that government officials observe strict limits to their awesome powers. A government of laws cannot exist when its servants fail to observe the law's own boundaries. Any government official who disobeys the rigorous demands of law in turn disturbs the public order which all of us are sworn to uphold.

Use of Force

In a complex urban society, officers daily confront situations where control must be exercised to effect arrests and to protect public safety. Control is achieved through advice, warning, and persuasion, or by the use of physical force. Force may not be used unless other reasonable alternatives have been exhausted or would be clearly ineffective under the particular circumstances. When the use of physical force is necessary, using a baton, pepper spray, firearms or other means, it must be exercised only when, and in the manner, authorized in the Department's policies. Decisions as to when and how to use force must be consistently made and exercised throughout every neighborhood of this City.


Effective law enforcement depends on a working partnership and a community of interest between the Department, its officers and the public they serve. The practice of courtesy in all public contacts encourages understanding and appreciation. Discourtesy breeds contempt and resistance. Most of the public are law-abiding citizens most of the time; they rightfully expect fair and courteous treatment by Department employees. While the urgency of a situation might preclude the ordinary social amenities, discourtesy under any circumstance is indefensible. The practice of courtesy by an officer is entirely consistent with the firmness and impartiality that characterizes a professional police officer.Devider


Courtesy Kenny Sanchez


Courtesy Kenny Sanchez

Doug Womack and Greg Womack

Photo Courtesy Ret Sgt Doug Womack
Brothers, after graduating the Academy 1979. Officer Sgt. Doug Womack (left) became a flight officer. Brother P/O Greg Womack went to the Southern District.

class pic

The academy has a sign with the Baltimore Police School's motto
"Service with Hope of Honor as Reward!"

Nancylee Kleine formerly Nancylee Wilhelm passed away on December 19th 2012Photo Courtesy Andy de la Vara
The Female Police Officer to the far left wearing a black dress with white color is
"Nancylee Kleine" formerly "Nancylee Wilhelm"


Class 69-5 Assignments1-72

Class 69-5

assaignment 1-1

assaignment 1-5

assaignment 1-4

assaignment 1-3

assaignment 1-2

assaignment 6-1

class 69-5-1

class 69-5-2

Photo and Documents Courtesy of Ofc. Leonard O'Connor
BPD Academya Class 1926 Ray Miles

Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

Academy Class 1926

Officer Ray Miles kept track of his 1926 class members until around 1963

Officer Cooney assigned CD.......Promoted to Sergeant

Officer Trombotta assigned: SWD........Fired

Officer I. M. Hoff assigned: SD......Retired 1951

Officer Hopkins assigned: NWD.....Fired

Officer Schwatka assigned: NWD....Died 1927

Officer Flanagan assigned: NED....Resigned

Officer Ray Miles assigned: WD....Retired 1951

Officer Atkinson assigned: WD...Headquarters...Fired

Officer McGrath assigned: NED.....?

Officer Maloney assigned: NED.....?

Officer Bock assigned: NED....Retired

Officer Young assigned: SWD....Retired

Officer Jackson assigned: ND...Promoted to Sergeant...Promoted to Lieutenant...Died

Officer Tarbutton assigned: SWD....Fired

Officer Clary assigned: ND....Fired

Officer Smith assigned: ND....Fired

Officer Bruchey assigned: SWD...Retired

Officer Eben assigned: NED....Promoted to Sergeant..Promoted to Lieutenant..Retired....Died

Officer Schneider assigned: WD...Died

Officer Leight assigned: WD...Quit ?

Officer O'Daugherty assigned: WD...Promoted to Sergeant....Retired

Officer Jones assigned: NWD....Retired

Officer Lynch assigned: NED...Transferred to NWD....Fired

img199 -72

Courtesy Tommy Linton

img200 72

Courtesy Tommy Linton


Baltimore City Police Department “Oath of Office”

In the Year of Our Lord 1937

"I . . . do swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland and support the Constitution and laws thereof; and that I will to the best of my skill and judgment, diligently, faithfully, without partiality or prejudice, execute the office of “Police Officer” of the police force of the city of Baltimore according to the Constitution and laws of the State.


Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly

Academy Class 1940's
John F Zaloudek2
Officer John F. Zaloudek attended this class
1942 BPD Academy Class
 Photo courtesy Bob Poist
Academy Class 1942
Officer Edward Poist 2nd. row fourth officer from the left.
class 7-6-1955
Class 7-6-1955
1950s 1
Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly 
1950s 2 Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly 
1950s 3 Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly
1950s 4
  Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly 
1950s 6 Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly
1950s 7 
Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly
1950s 8
Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly
Richard C. Ruth ("Dick" Ruth) is in the second row, second from the right.
1950s 9
  Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly 1950s 11
 Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly
 Photo courtesy Christina Bohli, John Drexel's daughter
Academy Class 1951
Officer John Drexel attended this class of recruits, photo taken upon graduation November 1, 1951
(Below) Names of the members of this class handwritten by each member in order of their location on the photo.
Class 68 8 Jim Comegna Sr
  Courtesy Jim Comegna Sr
Class 68-8Academy Class 1951 names
Photo courtesy Christina Bohli, John Drexel's daughter
Class 7-6-1955a
Academy Class: July 6, 1955
Officer Raymond Staniewski attended this class. 
Academy 1955
 Photo courtesy Mike Kearney
Academy Class 1955
 Officer William Kearney attended this class, within a few years he was promoted to the rank of Sergeant and then to Lieutenant. He retired from the department in 1991 and passed away in 2001.



This was a record class at the time (date unknown) 165 men. At the front, the Sergeant on the right is none other than the legendary Roger B. Stocksdale, he later became a Lieutenant He was a fine firearms instructor in 1962



In the front row, the man on the end on the left is Colonel Edwin Lawrence.  The next row up, second from the left is Lieutenant Kenny Crispens.  Right next to Kenny is Lieutenant Clarence Ethridge.  The fifth man further to the right in that same row is Sergeant Montfredo.  At the far right of that same row is Colonel Simon J. Avara.  Top right, the fellow standing in front of the column is one of the Panowicz brothers.  In the last row, directly under the "LI" in POLICE over the center door is Anton "Tony" Glover. 

Arthur Bud DiStafano
Academy Class 1956
This was one of the very large classes that graduated in 1956 from Turner's Armory on Hillen Road.  Major Robert DiStefano's oldest brother Arthur "Bud" DiStefano is in the last row, fourth from the right.  He stayed on the force for 11 years before he had enough.  Currently, he is in a nursing home, suffering from advanced Alzheimer's disease, and the aftermath of a severe stroke and brain surgery.  He is completely paralyzed and has been living on a stomach tube for almost two years.  Say a prayer for him.  Lieutenant Dennis Ortman is in the third row of males, eighth from the left!
1950s 10

Courtesy Lieutenant James Kelly

Academy Class 1956

Graduated September 15, 1956, at Turner's Armory.

Officer Jim Mitchell was a member of this class, upon graduation he was assigned to the Western District and spent 26 years in patrol and 3 years as a turnkey.

(See more about Jim on the Western District Chapter)

Calvin McCleese090 class

Courtesy of Jeff McCleese
Class 1957 at Turner's Armory - Calvin McCleese


Courtesy Sgt. Nick Caprinolo

 Academy Class:1958

Nick Caprinolo third from the left, in the third row. Joe Bonhoff is third from left, 4th row, just behind Caprinolo and to the right. Dick Frazier, fourth row third from the right. McClellan is the second from left. second row. He was in the crime lab for a long time. Walter Janowitz is fourth from the right, third row. Fabizak is fourth from right, top row.

Tom Black 4th from the right bottom row.John DiStefano, brother of Ret. Major Robert DiStefano, 3rd row, 7th from the right. 

Academy Class 1959

Photo courtesy Lieut. Emmett Jones

Off Lawrence Merrifield Class April 3 1959

Photo courtesy Officer Lawrence Merrifield

Academy Class April 3, 1959
LOOKOUT 9-11-1961
B.P.D. LOOKOUT 9-11-1961 displays a list of applicants for appointment as probationary patrolman and policewoman
Nov 1960
Photo courtesy Mrs. Elaine Honeycutt
Academy Class 1960 
Academy Class graduating November 1960.
Officer William M. Honeycutt is pictured second row 3rd. from left.


One of the classes of 1960
Officer Billy R. Vest Sr
1961 CLASS

Academy Class 1961

Academy class of 1961 in front of the Baltimore Museum of Art, in front of “The Thinker” Front row: left to right 4th Elizabeth Treakle, 5th Mary Thomas, 6th Kay Allman, 7th Clara Sigman, 9th Peter Pauline Second row: left to right 4th Kenneth Lambert, 7th Charles Markiewicz, 11th Paul Oneto Third row: unknown Fourth row: left to right 4th Bernard Sullivan, 11th William Willis, 15th Donald Hranicka, 16th Norman Cutsail, 18th Merle Newman

Sgt George T Owens New Cops1 1962

Photo Courtesy Sgt. George T. Owens

Sgt George T Owens New Cops2
 Photo Courtesy Sgt. George T. Owens
1962 Academy Class
Photo courtesy Officer John G Magrogan Jr.
Academy Class 1962

Academy Class 1962 started in May and recruits were graduated in September.

Police Officer John Magrogan, badge# 166, is pictured far right, second row 1st. officer

Officer Magrogan left Baltimore Police Dept. of Prince George Co Police Depart.in Aug 1965

1960s academy class


Academy Class 1962-2

Officer Bowden, 1st row last on right, left the department during the first year, Officer Elbert F. Williams is in the second row, 1st. from the left, second row second from left is Officer Tony Savalina second row second from right is Officer James Catterton, who left the police department and joined the fire department, 1st row third from left is Officer Agusnack, next to Officer George T. Owens

Sgt George T Owens Academy Review

 Photo Courtesy Sgt. George T. Owens

Kenneth Schiminger2
39 Probationary Patrolmen appointed by
Commissioner Bernard J. Schmidt during the early 1960's
(to enlarge the above list of officers click on the 100% icon bottom right corner)
Class Aug 1964
Photo courtesy Sgt. Donald Daugherty
Academy Class 1964

Graduation August 1964

Officer Daugherty, was in the second row third from the right.

Bessie Norris, Dottie Charles, Bill Rowley were also in the class

.march 1964 Humble

Courtesy Jan Humble
1964 Class picture taken on the steps of the Baltimore Museum of Art, March 1964.

Jean Mewbourne is the young lady front and center, Jim Stein is 1st row on the right end.
Bill Humble is 2nd row 2nd from the left end. Jim Gallagher is 2nd-row right end.
Top row right end is an officer with the last name is Rubin.

Class 65


Academy Class 1965
First row extreme right is Jim Larkins, Ret. ED. Don Voss is to the first person second-row extreme left side.  Norman Hook is the third from the right, second row. January 1965, taken at Turner Armory
 academy class 1966
Photo courtesy Sgt. Earl Le Bon
Academy Class 1966
Joseph Bolesta is second from the right second row. Al Taylor fourth from the right second row. Earl LeBon is sixth from the right top row. Ray Mills is standing next to him at seventh. October 1966
academy class1965
Courtesy Officer Jules Denito
Academy Class: 67-6
Officer Jules Denito, served in the Southern District and Northwestern District. Officer William Melvin Phelps can be seen standing in the front row, second from the left. He served in the Northern District, Central District, K9, Western and Eastern Districts. He was promoted to Sergeant in 1971 and left the BPD and served with the Cape Coral, Florida Police Department for 19 years, retiring in 2002.
Photo courtesy Detective Raymond Wilson
Temporary Identification Card issued to the trainees while in the Police Academy, this one belonging to Raymond E. Wilson issued 12/7/67 (Below) Academy class of 1968 in which Ray Wilson graduated. He is standing 4th row back 3rd officer in from the left. 1 member of this class was killed in the line of duty.
Academy Class 1968
Photo courtesy Detective Ray Wilson
John R Blackburn------------WD Daniel Boniarski-------------SED James J. Brokus------------SED Malcomb L. Cosby----------SD Marvin L. Councilman-----WD Matthew W. Dogan III------NWD Homer R. Dorsey- ----------SD Harry C. Foard----------------ND James E. Gilpin--------------SWD Fielding C. Godbee, Jr.---SWD Clyde R. Goodrum-----------WD Jerome E. Greer--------------SD John H. Haase, Jr.------------WD Ronald D. Hartman-----------SD Kevin J. Hildreth---------------WD Richard A. Hughes------------CD Ronald D. Johnston-----------ND Ronald D. Johnston-----------ND Emerson L. Knox--------------WD Charles W. Leonard-----------ED Peter W. McFarlane-----------ED James W. Mayfield------------WD Raymond F. Meyers----------SWD Robert C. Moscirella----------WD Henry L. Parker-----------------WD Willie L. Perdue-----------------WD Frank A. Russo---------------- SD Ronald S. Savage---------------SD George E. Sheffield------------WD George M. Singer---------------SD Milton Spell-----------SD--(LOD 8-15-74) Vincent W. Yedynak------------CD Jocephus Weeks---------------NWD Raymond E. Wilson------------WD
196812 July 1968 
Courtesy Edward Marston Jr
Photo courtesy Lieutenant Robert Wilson
Academy Class 68-6

Photo courtesy Officer Donald Meyers

Officer Donald Myers graduated from 68-6 and served The Baltimore City Police Department for several years and moved on joining the Taneytown, Maryland and then the Manchester, Maryland Police Departments, serving as Chief of Police for each. Don is now retired and living in Florida.

Robert Wilson was graduated as well from this class and attained the rank of Lieutenant before retiring.

baltimore city police 06

Courtesy Det. Leonard A. Willis, Sr

Academy Class 68-9

68-9 is a very small but unique class because it was the first graduating class of the "Experimental Time Phase Functional Recruit-Training." The class of 21 policemen went through 20 weeks of training. Each graduate received 12 college credits for the completion of this program. The names of the graduating Officers are: Top Row: from left to right are: Ronald C. Stewart, Charles L Vanneman, Alvin A. Winkler, James F. Alford, Leonard A. Willis Sr., Ray L. Gillispie, Kenneth R. While Middle Row: left to right are: Louis F. Wright Jr., Billy R. Anderson, Frank H. Grant (Howard County Police), James K. Conway, Brent L Crawford, Edward L. Hamilton, Robert A. Moore, and Edgar H. Whiteman. Bottom Row: Left to right are: Charles F. Cichon, John Cunningham, David M. Doxzen (Howard County Police) Robert C. Harrison, Charles J. Ryan, Robert J. Addison and Joseph W. Weber. Information provided by Leonard A. Willis, Sr., a former homicide detective with the Baltimore Police Department.

police trainees range

Police Trainees, shotgun training at the range

gunpowder range buildings


Baltimore City Police Firearms Training Area

Class 87-3 obviously followed by class 87-4 heard of some poor decisions made by members of the junior class and that Pepsi machine seen in this picture, from what we heard you could either hit the machine, or reach up in it and get free soda's (they didn't know free wasn't free, first it was stealing and second they paid for it with their jobs. Several members of that class were fired for stealing sodas. If you are going to catch a thief in uniform there is no better time than while they are in training. 

gunpowder range line


Baltimore City Police Oath of Office

I do swear or affirm that I will support the Constitution of the United States: that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland and support the Constitution and Laws thereof: that I will to the best of my skill and judgment diligently and faithfully without partiality or prejudice execute the office of a Probationary Police Officer for the Baltimore City Police Department according to the Constitution and laws of this State.



 Academy CLASS 68-?

Officer Ernest Elliott third row, third Officer in from left to right. Officer Elliott was Assigned to the Southeast District and served there for 5 years. Officer Alan Williams, 2nd row 3rd from right

Michael Roselle class 68-11 14 Feb 1968

CourtesyMichael Roselle
Class 68-11. This is the right photo of Class 68-11 graduation on Feb 14th, 1969



Academy Class 69-1
2nd row on the right side we can see Jimmy Halcomb
Photo courtesy Officer Leroy Smith
Academy Class 69-3
 Officer Leroy Smith top row 1st. officer right side.
 Firearms training taken at Gunpowder, now Retired Major DiStefano was a firearms/defense tactics instructor at the time. The man on the left end is then Sgt. later to be Captain, Robert Jenkins. The man in the middle is Bob Michael, and the man on the right end is then Sgt, later to be Captain Howard Parrot. The other instructor is Elmer Thomas.

defense tactics1


Defense tactics at the old E&T in the Northern "attic", January 31, 1968, DiStefano was the instructor, then a cadet, later Major Frank Russo is executing the tactic.
defense tactics2
Training at the old E&T in the old Northern,  it shows then Sgt., later Lieutenant, Thomas "Tom" Hennessey, explaining what DiStefano is doing to his partner, Patrolman Robert C. Michael.


Northern E&T, DiStefano and Officer Bob Michael again.


E&T at the Northern, Jan 31, 1969, showing DiStefano, and a group including then cadet, later Major, Frank Russo, on the left of the picture, in the back row

class 69-5 Bill Bertazon s

Courtesy Officer William Bertazon

Academy Class 69-5
BPD class 69-5 on July 1969 in front of Poly-Western High School. Officer Bill Bertazon top row, third from the left.  Just underneath the left rear tire of the pickup truck.
Academy Class 69-6
Photo Courtesy Officer David Williams
Academy Class 69-6 
Officer David L. Williams. Second row third from the left.
Photo Courtesy Officer Don DeWar
Academy Class 69-8
Officer Don DeWar, third row from the top and 5th from the left, Officer Robert Brown is second row second from left
69 9
Academy Class 69-10

Class photo was taken in front of the War Memorial Bldg.

1st row…. .. 7th from left is Officer James Liberto

2nd. Row…6th from left is Officer Dan Gray

3rd. row...... 7th from left is Officer Gilbert Robinette

4th row....... 5th from left is Officer Wilbur C. Bartels E.O.D. August 1969 to retirement October 1989

Sgt Parrott class 69-11

Courtesy Lt. Tom Douglas

Sgt. Parrott staging a crime scene for class 69-11at E & T in the old Northern District in January 1970.  Officer Tom Douglas standing with glasses.  Paul Byer is the farthest to the left.
Class 69-11 Graduated February 1970
Courtesy Lt. Tom Douglas
Academy Class 69-11
Officer Tom Douglas 1st. row, far right.
Courtesy Lt. Tom Douglas
 Courtesy Sergeant Donald F. Kramer, Sr.
Academy Class 69-12
Sergeant Donald F. Kramer, Sr.
Academy Class 69-12




AVERY, WILLIE J.                    KIBLER, GEORGE T.






BUSCEMI, JOHN M.                 MUIR, ROBERT W.

BUSH, RICHARD E.                  O’HARE, THOMAS L.

CAPPS, LARRY E.                   PETRIC, IVAN

COOPER, KING E.                   QUINTANA, PAUL D

COPE, MICHAEL I.                  SCHMIDT, ROBERT P.


DAY, DONALD D.                   SIZELOVE, HARRY A.







HALL, JAMES B.                    WHITEMAN, CHARLES H.




Criminal Justice Commission Names lieutenant Otto A. Urban As The "Policeman Of The Month"

April 1970

Lt Urban


Lieutenant Otto A. Urban, a 43 year veteran of the Department, presently assigned to the Education and Training Division, received the Criminal Justice Commission's "Policeman of the Month" citation on April 2nd. The award was made by Commission president, Phillip Heller Sachs, during ceremonies at the Education and Training Division. Mr. Sachs noted that "outstanding police services not directly related to the apprehension of criminals are frequently unpublicized and Lieutenant Urban merited this award as an 'unsung hero' for sustained above-average performance and dedication to duty over a long period of time." The picture above includes in the back row, from left to right Major Norman E. Pomrenke, Deputy Commissioner Wade H. Poole, and Deputy Commissioner Thomas J. Keyes; the front row includes from, left to right, Mr. Richard G. Sullivan, Managing Director of the Criminal Justice Commission, Lieutenant Otto A. Urban, Mr. Phillip Heller Sachs, Commission President and other members of the Commission, Mr. Ernest Johannesen, and Mr. Warren A. Miller.

class 70-1


Officer William Hackley photo

Academy Class: 70-1
Officer William Hackley, second row 3rd. from the right
class 70-1 02
class 70-1 03
Photo courtesy Officer William Roberts
Academy Class 70-6
Photo courtesy Officer William Roberts

Class 70-7 - BPD

Courtesy Wesley Wise

Class 70-7
academy class 1971
Courtesy Officer Missie Edick
Baltimore Police Academy Class 1970-1971
Officer Bob Brown's Class
class 71-4
Courtesy Officer William Garmer
Academy Class: 71-4
Was the 1st. class to graduate from the St. Agnes College Campus. Officer Everett Voelker, top row, far left
Officer William Garmer, top row second from the left. Officer Barry Wood died in the line of duty 11-04-1998
first-row center sergeant Howard Collins, bottom row far right.
jerry 3 72
Courtesy Jerry DeManss
Class 71-7

Bernie Lowry class pic

Class 72-?
Bernie Lowry class
Academy Class 71-8
 Class 71-8  Officer Gary D. Starkey, top row, 9th from the left.


CLASS 71-8



HOWARD R. BANKS                    RICHARD J. KOEL

JOHN P. BARTON                         FREDERICK D. LANE

EDWARD M. BOYLE                     ERIC N. MANUEL



HENRY D. CAVE, JR.                   LOUIS G. PARKER, JR.



JACK N. D’AMARIO                      MAURICE W. REDMOND

THOMAS J. FISHER                     SANFORD C. SCOTT

STEPHEN G. FREY                      MICHAEL G. SHANAHAN


PHILIP S. GERALD                      GARY D. STARKEY


DON W. HELMS                          BRADFORD A. THOMAS


GEORGE S. HILL                       JIMMIE E. WALLACE, JR.



Officer Terry L Miller
Academy Class 71-9

The Class Commander was Lt. Lewendowski and Training Academy Commander was LT. Hoover with an Officer George Eckert as first aid and self defense instructor.



Photo courtesy Officer Rick Krause

Academy Class 72-2
1972 Academy Class
Photo courtesy Mrs. Debbie Bell
Academy Class 72-?
Officer James H Bell, Jr., 3rd in from the right, bottom row, his arm cocked.
class 72-7 frank napfel
Courtesy Officer Frank Napfel
Academy Class 72-7
Officer Frank Napfel 1st. row 8th. from the left.


Drew Hall
Graduated 1972 (72-4)
Photo courtesy Officer Larry Austin
Academy Class 1973
Academy Class  73-3
 Photo courtesy Officer Kayhla Hendren
1973 73-6
Photo courtesy Officer David Webb
Academy Class 73-6
BPD Class 73-10
Photo courtesy Scott Thomas
Academy Class 73-10
74-4 jim carnes Courtesy Jim Carnes
74-6 A
Courtesy Officer Stephen Pohl
Academy Class 74-6
Officer Stephen Pohl  7th from the left in the top row
Officer David Clauss 10th. from the left in the top row
74-6 B
Courtesy Officer Stephen Pohl
1974 74-7
 Photo courtesy Agent Robert Jud
Academy Class 74-7
Front row left to right. Wardell James John Lorme, Zachery Tims, Ronald Hubbard, Matt Immler, Abe Usera, Roland Miller, Mike Sharkey, Robert Jud, unk, unk, unk, unk, Class Advisor Sgt. Frank Broccolini.
Back row left to right: unk, Gary Stott, Ronald James, William Ritmiller, unk, Johnny Fisher, unk, Brent Bryson, unk, unk, unk, Robert Douglas, unk, Leonard Blum, Innes Foster
The missing names from the class are: Roger Aikin, Ray Coleman, Mike Hanks, Glenn Miller, Swindell Roulhac, Kenneth Seekford, George Singleton, Thomas Stein, Melvin Thomas, Thomas Wells, and Howard Whitaker III. These names listed as (unk) possibly someone will look at the class photo and be able to fill in the blanks.
1974 74-8A
Photo courtesy Police Agent Alan Small
Academy Class 74-8
1974 74-8B
Photo courtesy Police Agent Alan Small
Photo Courtesy Sergeant Bill Gordon
Academy Class 74-9

Photo Courtesy Sergeant Bill Gordon
CLASS 74-11

Front Row: James Eigner, Annapolis Officer Edward Mackiewicz , Byron Williams, Russell Merritt, Unknown, Floyd Myers, Daniel Chapman, Unknown, Annapolis Officer Glen Cross, Kathy (Hamilton) Patek, August Beyer, III, Stephen Grenfell, Officer Raymond Butler, Class Adviser

Back Row: James Fell, Kelly Allen, Andrew Leso, Tony Petralia, Gregory Meacham, Jeremiah Daley, George Faulkner, Annapolis Officer Neil Burke, David Bugda, John Poliks, John Johnson, Unknown, Unknown, Unknown Taken at Mt. St Agnes Academy on Smith Ave.

Academy Class 1975

Photo Courtesy Denise DePasquale (Daughter of Officer Timothy Ridenour
Academy Class 75-?

Officer Timothy B. Ridenour, Top row, 3 rd. from the end. Officer Ridenour was killed in the line of duty October 27, 1975
Academy Class 1975
 Courtesy Carl Eric Stambaugh
Academy Class 1975
Courtesy Jeff Rosen
Academy Class 75-9
Photo courtesy Officer Gary Provenzano
Academy Class 75-9

April 30, 1976

75-9 was the first class to graduate wearing the current issue badge.

When they were hired, they were issued the 4th.issue style that had been used since 1890, by the time they graduated, they were wearing the current badge. Also noteworthy is that they were wearing black bands on their badges in memory of Officer James Halcomb, who died in the line of duty.

 75-9 program 

class 76-2
Courtesy Officer Paul Williams
Class 76-2
Officer Paul Williams, back row 7th. from the right
Paul J. Williams E.O.D. April 1976 Retired October 21, 1996. Assigned to the Northwest District the first 5 years then transferred to the Eastern District. Because of being injured, he was sent to telephone reporting unit, evidence control unit, and then back to the Eastern District where he retired from this class was one of three class that were laid off that year because of buget cuts. The day that all three class were told about the layoff, the staff at St. Agnes was called for more Police to stand by because they thought there was going to be trouble, there was none.
76 3 72
Courtesy of Robert  McMahon

1class 76-2a

Program for Academy Class 76-2

class 76-2b


Courtesy Officer John Brazil

Academy Class 77-1

Class 77-1 Roster

Courtesy Officer John Brazil


Photo courtesy Lt. Jack Spicer
Academy Class 77-2 
 Photo courtesy Lt. Jack Spicer
77 3
Courtesy Charles Klein
George Eckert 1977

Officer George Eckert giving a Police Trainee CPR training 1977

E&T was located on the 10th. floor of the HQ building
Buddy Ey1

Buddy Ey2
Photo courtesy Kenneth M. Schiminger

78 1 Robert Jones

Courtesy Robert Jones
Class 78-1
 Photo courtesy of Officer Doug Womack
Academy Class 79-1

Photo courtesy Officer Doug Womack
Academy Class 79-2
 BaltPD Class 79-5i sm
Photo courtesy Officer William Stanley
Academy Class 79-5

Photo courtesy Officer Donnie Wayson
Academy Class 79-11
Academy Class 80-2

Courtesy Agent James S. Segeda
Academy Class 80-2
Academy Class 80-3
1980 80-6
Academy Class 80-6
80 10
Academy Class 80-10
80-11 A
Photo Courtesy of Sergeant David Munyan
Academy Class 80-11
80-11 B
Photo Courtesy of Sergeant David Munyan
Jon Foote 2
Photo Courtesy Officer Jon Foote
Officer Jon Foote Seq.# D080, Class 81-6 receiving his certificate from Commissioner Frank Battaglia.

BaltimorePD-81-10 reduced
Courtesy John Jarman (Officer 1981 – 1988, Southern District)
Class 81-10
82-1 corrected nick
Courtesy Officer Brian Schwaab
Academy Class 82-1
Officer Brian Schwaab,back row,4th. from the right.
Photo enhanced courtesy retired Sergeant Nick Caprinolo
82-1 cover
Program (above) and list of graduates (below)
Class 82-1
82-1 list
Program (above) and list of graduates (below)
Class 82-1
82 4a
Class 82-4
82 4b
Class 82-4
82 4c
Class 82-4
82 4d
Class 82-4
82 4f
Class 82-4
82 4g
 Class 82-4
Courtesy Steven Hatchett

Academy Class 82-5
Photo courtesy Officer Williams Johns
Academy Class 82-5

Photo courtesy Major Antonio Rodriguez
Academy Class  83-2
Photo courtesy Officer Roxy Cotton
1983 83-04
Academy Class 83-4
 Back row: Raynard Jones; McDermott; ?; Robert Hughes; Bost; ?;  Kenneth Nauman; Lt. Joanne (Burkhardt) Voelker; Sgt. Charles Morgan (?); ?;  Ed White (SD); Elmer Justice; Parrott; and

Sgt. Robert Booth.

Second row: Sgt. Mealy; AA; Dennis Thurman; John Mack; Gene Cassidy; AA;  ?; Greg McGillivary; AA; Randy Humes;

Sgt. Rietz; ?; and Taliba Mohommad.

Third row: AA; Terry Love Sr;   ?; Whelan; Roxanne Cotton (VCIS);   Col. Timothy Longo;   Sgt. Charletta Jackson; ?; Michelle Cheatham (ED);   and Van   ?.


   (?= unknown;   *AA= Another Agency; *Orange Names= Active BPD)

 84-1 Nancy Jones

Courtesy Nancy Jones
Class 84-1

nancy jones roster lg

Courtesy Nancy Jones

Baltimore Police Academy Class 87 1 Ben Fiore
Courtesy Ben Fiore
Class 87-1

Academy Class 85-2 Graduates
No Photo Available

Jeff 85 3 sm

Courtesy Jeff McCleese
Class 85-3

Courtesy Sgt. Doug Schwaab
Academy Class  85-3
Top row third from the left is P/O Robert Alexander who was killed in the line of duty 9/20/86.
Officer Doug Schwaab 4th from the left. Sgt. John Slaughter, class advisor
P/O  Steve Saghy   (Third Row/Third From Right)
class 85-4

Courtesy Officer William Painter
Academy Class 85-4
Officer William Painter's class, Lt. Winkler standing far right
class 86-4 john long

Courtesy Major John E. Long
Academy Class 86-4
Officer John E. Long back row 5th. Officer from the right.
Officer Long was promoted through the ranks
and retired as a Major
Maj Pat Bradley
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Major Patrick Bradley, Director of E & T
Lt Bass Sgt Tom Maly Stan Mezewski Major Bradley
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
L to R Lt. Mike Bass, Sergeant Tom Maly, Sergeant Stan Mezewski, Major Patrick Bradley
DeT Jean Mewborne
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Detective Jean Mewbourne
Off Lenny Podgorski1
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Officer Lenny Podgorsky

Sgt Stan Mezewski

Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Sergeant Stan Mezewski
Theresa Cunningham
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Agent Theresa Cunningham
Sgt Tom Maly
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Sergeant Tom Maly
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
89 2 72
Courtesy Shonda Williams / Mario Notargiacomo
Class 89-2
Photo courtesy Officer Ed Gorwell
Academy Class 90-4

Courtesy Kevin Archer
Class 90-4
class unk
Academy Class 91-1
Academy class...91-1 at the Raven's complex in Owings Mills
Advisors Sgt. Tim Longo and Sgt. James Sharpe.
Officer Steven Longo's class

92-1 cover

Bob Gordon E821

Courtesy Robert Gordon
Class unknown 2
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski / Det. Michael Hansen

Academy Class 92-2

BPD Academy 1993-1

Photo courtesy Det. Lou Trimper

BPD Academy 1993

The Baltimore Police Academy was temporally housed in the Colts/Raven Sport Complex in Owings Mills.

All recruit academic training and In-Service was conducted here for a number of years.

BPD Academy 1993-2

Photo courtesy Det. Lou Trimper

Class unknown 1
Curtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski

Academy Class 94-2

Dave O'Leary, Erik Pecha, Rob Cremmen


1995 95-1

Photo courtesy Officer Benny Barnes
Academy Class 95-1
Academy Class 95-4

IMG 341741235368659
Courtesy Captain Steven Ward
Class 99-2
1999 99-04
Academy Class 99-4

Class unknown 3
Courtesy Officer Lenny Podgorski
Unknown Class above
2004 04 01
Photo courtesy Detective Wendy K. Morton
Academy Class 04-1
P/O Leslie A. Holliday was in this class.. pictured in the front...she died in the line of duty in 2005


Photo courtesy Officer Orlando Quiles
Academy Class 05-1
Top row left to right: Payne, Stickles, Hall, Coates, Surratt, Collins, Afmegad, Giordano, McDuffie, Shuttleworth, Cherry, Magwood, Curry, Miller, Teelle, Drew, Gillespie, Berry, Schlepper, Kienle, Unknown, Armstrong, Rice, Mann, McShane, Stevens, Maddred.

Bottom row right to left: Glazerman, Orlando Quiles, T. Smith, Monah, Buie, Reed, Sinkler, McCormick, Bailey, Honablew, S. Payne, Allman, Williams, Ferguson, White, J. Smith.

2007 Class 07-06
Academy Class 07-6
The background for this photo as the then-new public safety training center in the NWD.
Academy Class 08-1

Photo courtesy Officer Robert Trimper

brandon stickles mayor

Courtesy Detective Leslie J. Stickles, Jr.
Mayor Martin O'Malley, Officer Brandon Stickles,

Police Commissioner Leonard Hamm 2005

"Rosado" A

Law Enforcement Family

Officer Joseph Rosado accepting his certificate

Photo Courtesy Sergeant Jose Rosado

Officer Joseph Rosado, above, receives his Certificate of Completion of the Baltimore Police Academy, from Commissioner Leonard Hamm, June 1, 2007

Below Joe is standing with his proud father, Sergeant Jose Rosado, who served the Northwest District, the Helicopter Unit, the D.A.R.E. program, E & T, and Southeast District.

Officer Joe Rosado with father Sergeant Jose Rosado

Photo Courtesy Sergeant Jose Rosado

Alex Joe classmate and future wife Myrna Joes mom and twin sister Stacey 6-01-07

Photo Courtesy Sergeant Jose Rosado

Officer Joe Rosado seen here standing with his gracious mother, his sister, Stacey and also with Alex, a classmate and future wife.

Officer Joseph Rosado and his twin sister Stacey
Photo Courtesy Sergeant Jose Rosado

Officer Joe Rosado, above, with his twin sister Stacey

And below he is with Major Sue Young, now retired, the Commanding Officer of the Education and Training Division

June 1, 2007

A fine family and Joe, you have some very big shoes to fill, following your dad, a 30-year veteran who served the department in various assignments with true dedication and skill

Joe and Major Sue Young

Photo Courtesy Sergeant Jose Rosado

BPD 00-080001 Portz 08 72

Photo Courtesy of Lisa Olszewski
BPD Class 2000-8  -  Tommy Portz' class‏
90 4(1)

Courtesy Kevin Archer
Class 90-4

90 4

Courtesy Kevin Archer
Class 90-4
Jay Wilysm

Courtesy Jay Wiley
Class 80-9
John J Wiley If my memory is correct that is Com Donald Pomerlau sm
Courtesy Jay Wiley
John J Wiley with PC Donald Pomerleau

Class unknown 3
Class unknown 1
Class unknown 2 
class 86-4 john long 
class 85-4 
2004 04 01

The following  is a series of five articles telling how a Baltimorean becomes a POLICEMAN.

By Lee McCardell......... September 1937

old time police

1. Policeman For His $40 A Week Must Prove His Knowledge For The Job

He Applies, Takes A Test, And If Passing, Is Put On Eligibility List-Then He Waits Before He Dons A City Officer's Uniform

The policeman-you know him. Where does he come from? And how?

The following is the first of a series of five telling how a Baltimorean becomes a policeman

By Lee McCardell …..September 20, 1937

The policeman toots a whistle holds up a white-gloved hand… helps a blind man across the street….. tries the store doors along with his beat after dark….investigates strange noises….and gets $40 a week after two years' probation.

You greet him warmly as "Officer" when at your request, he appears in the middle of the night to discourage someone from jimmying the dining-room window (The person jimmying the window may call him a “bull.") You speak of him as a "cop" when he sticks a parking ticket under your windshield wiper. He's a "flatfoot" if the judge fines you.

Well, you needn't turn up your nose at the next Baltimore policeman you see, regardless of what you call him. He belongs to a select circle of exactly 1,897 Police Department employees.

Breaking into the police force these days is almost as hard as breaking into a bank. The number of department employees, while not the maximum permitted under state law is the maximum for which salaries are provided in the Baltimore city budget.

Should you yourself aspire to perform brass-buttoned constabulary duty in Baltimore, you must wait until a death, resignation or dismissal that reduces the number of names on the Police Department payroll. Then-- One at a time! Don't rush, There will be plenty of time and plenty of notice First, you must get on the eligible list. From Eligibility List Comes the Appointments

The eligible list is prepared by a board of three police examiners appointed like the Police Commissioner, by the Governor. It is the duty of the board to hold competitive examinations from time to time in order to keep a list of eligible candidates on hand for appointment as probation officers. From the list, the Police Commissioner makes the actual appointment.

The present list contains enough names to fill all vacancies likely to occur until next April 24, when it expires. Early in January the board will a advertise an examination to prepare a new list.

To take this examination an applicant must be a registered voter of the State of Maryland. not less than 25 or more than 37 years of age on the following April Fool's Day: not less than five feet ten inches tall in his stocking feet and at least 150 pounds in weight. No color line is drawn.3,500 Are Interviewed In 3-Week Period

Numbered application blanks are handed out in the offices of the Board of Police Examiners, Room 506, on the fifth floor of the police building at Fayette street and the Fallsway. Every day for three weeks, between the hours of 11 A.M. and 1 P. M., the three-board members are on hand to interview applicants. Dr. Dwight H. Mohr, chief physician of the Police. Department is there to give preliminary physical examinations.

As many as 3,500 applicants have been interviewed during that three week period. Who are they?

Stationary engineers, automobile salesmen, freight truckers, cab drivers, refrigerator servicemen, manufacturers' agents," professional baseball players, telegraph operators, pipefitters, tailors, barbers, teachers, clerks, motormen, ice wagon drivers, filling station operators, bookkeepers, auditors, printers, machinists, weighers, markers, inspectors, managers, runners, Painters, elevator operators, steelworkers, firemen, butchers, carpenters, paperhangers. bench hands, helpers. laborers. . .Some are college graduates.Step On Scales; Show Your Hands, Applicants

Interests equally as varied are represented by the three examiners who interview these men. W. Lawrence Wicks, president of the board, is the son of a former Baltimore police sergeant and manages a Liberty Heights bowling alley. Sigmund Stephan, the second member, is a retired postal inspector. The third member, Arthur Kadden, is the proprietor of an East Baltimore street hat store. Just inside 'the examining board's office door the men who want to become policemen step on a scale set at 150 pounds. They have to tip that to get any further. Then they stand beneath a measuring rod fixed to a door frame and set at the required 5 feet 10 inches. Do they wear glasses? Down they go to the office at the end of the hall for an eye test by Dr. Mohr.

"Let's see your hands. Got all your fingers? "A Felony Against You And You're Counted Out

No use going any further if you haven't got the fingers to handle a pistol properly. "Ever been 'arrested? What for?... A felony disqualifies you.

But, passing these preliminaries, an applicant receives a numbered blank with a perforated tab. The tab must be filled out then and there with the applicant's name, address, election ward and precinct. On the back of this tab, he is "finger-printed by a police expert assigned to special duty in the examiner's office. This tab with, its fingerprints are torn off and retained by the examiners. He Has Questions, Then Some More Questions

The would-be policeman takes the rest of the blank and a sheet of mimeographed instructions home with him.

There he fills out his formal application, writing in the answers to a long list of questions that give his complete personal history, and appending the names of five acquaintances preferably lawyers, doctors, clergymen. willing to vouch for his "ability, industry, character, habits and general fitness for appointment to the Police department of Baltimore city."

He must swear to the truth of all the information he gives about himself. There is a place on the back of the blank for a justice or notary to take his oath. And the completed application blank must be returned to the Board of Examiners by a specified date.

The applicant's' instruction sheet informs him that the examination will be held in the Maryland Institute building at Baltimore street and Market Place on such-and-such a date; that card. of admittance will be mailed to his address a week prior to the examination, and that he will be tested in spelling, arithmetic, locations, and common sense.

Comes Test Time And Room Is Filled

The board makes out its own examinations. Mr. Stephan says, gets up a list of ten good words for the spelling test, Mr. Kadden works up to five arithmetic problems. The president of the board figures out ten questions on locations and ten common-sense questions. Meanwhile, the applicant's age, address, ward, and precinct, as they appear on his finger-print tab are being checked against records of the Board of Election Supervisors. Provided there is no discrepancy, he is mailed a card of admittance to the examination. Underscored on the card is the hour when "doors will close." Stamped upon it in red ink is the instruction to "bring your own pencil."

A large class of applicants fills practically all the rooms of the institute building. Each room is supervised by several watchers, Smoking and talking are taboo. Each applicant receives a numbered examination paper for his spelling test and a numbered booklet for the rest of his, written work. Try A Question Or So If You'd Like A Job

An hour and thirty minutes are permitted for the examination after the ten words of the spelling test have been pronounced. When he has done the best he can by his spelling, the applicant opens his numbered booklet and goes to work on location, common sense and arithmetic.

Where he is asked, are such places as:

(1) The Robert Garrett Hospital for Children?

(2) The House of the Good Shepherd for Colored Girls?

(3) Headquarters of the Maryland Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to


(4) The Federal Land Bank

(5) The Armistead Monument?

(6) The Maryland and Pennsylvania Railroad Station?

(7) The Baltimore headquarters of the .Salvation Army?

(8) The Baltimore Cemetery?

(9) The Baltimore Mail Line dock?

(10) What license plates are required on Mail trucks?

(11) In criminal cases, upon whom does the burden of proof lay?

(12) what are the general duties of a coroner?

(13) Where must trials for violation of criminal law take place?

(14) What are three methods by which you might summons Fire Department

apparatus? Easy? Okay, Try Some ! More And Arithmetic

Name three Baltimore public service corporations. Must you be a taxpayer to serve as a juror? What is the name of the system, used for identifying criminals, by means of certain bodily measurements and marks? For what legal reason may a penitentiary prisoner's term be reduced? How can a man, who has served a term for felony, have his citizenship restored?

Arithmetic comes last. Calculations as well as answers must be set down for problems along this line:

If 12 men can earn $270 in 9 working days, how much can 28 men earn in 5 days? An agent sold 9,873 pounds of sugar at 4 3/8 cents per pound, charged

1 5/8 per cent. commission and $2.90 for other expenses. What were the net proceeds of the sale? A son inherited 920 acres from his father and later sold 138 acres. What per cent of his inheritance remained? What is the cost of 58 5/8 yards of goods at 37 1/4 cents per yard? The firm of A and B has a capital of $12.387. A's investment being he $2,387 less than B's. What is each partner’s investment?

2. City Makes Honest Men Of Police Pupils; They're Scrutinized Fore And Aft

Watchers Pace Aisles During Tests-Candidates’

Finger Prints Are Checked, Then Detectives Take Up Their Trails

The policeman-you know-him. Where does he come from: And how?

The following article is the second of a series of five telling how a Baltimorean becomes a policeman

By Lee McCardell September 21, 1939

If a man has lived in Baltimore long enough to be a registered voter and has the equivalent of a grammar school education the Board of Police Examiners figures that he should be able to pass its written test for probation patrolman without consulting any notes on his cuff.

But human nature being as frail as it is, the tests are not conducted under the honor system. Alert watchers walk up and down the aisles of the Maryland Institute's Market Place building during the hour and a half the examination is in progress. There must be no whispering, no rubber-necking. If anyone taking the examination is caught cheating, his paper is taken up and he is disqualified.

Before an aspirant may leave the building after taking his examination, he must fill out still another blank form stamped with the number of his examination papers. On this last form, he writes his full name and address. Another impression of his fingerprints goes on the bottom of this sheet. This is to prevent an applicant from sending in someone brighter than he is to take his written test for him. Finger Prints Checked With Applications

The last signature and set of fingerprints arc compared with those on the applicant's original application tab before his paper is accepted as genuine. The three examiners then get together around a big desk in their inner office at the Police Building, close the door and go to work.

The examiners are "three sober and discreet persons." according to the law who draw $1,200 each year with $1,800 for a secretary and $900 for office expenses. Appointed for two years examiners are required to have been registered voters for three consecutive years prior to appointment. Two of the examiners must be adherents of the two leading political parties of the State. But there are no educational, qualifications for a police examiner.

Triple, Check for Prevents Error Grading a batch of probation officer examination papers is a pretty good job, particularly, as each of the three are sober and discreet persons around the desk checks all the answers to all the questions on all the papers. This triple check is to prevent error. The examiners work holidays as well as weekdays in order to have all the papers the marked in time to prepare a new list the of eligible candidates for the police force by the latter part of April when the old eligible list expires.

Not al the men who apply to the board for application blanks and preliminary physical examination show up to take the written test. Probably half of those who take it pass. The principal stumbling block is the common-sense questions. Sometimes they give even the college graduates trouble.

Applicants Get Chance To Challenge Grades Correct answers to all questions given in the test are posted after the examination on a bulletin board in the examiners' outer office. All examination papers are kept on file, and if an applicant questions the grade he receives he may ask to see his paper. Papers are graded on a basis of 100 percent. The passing mark varies. Sometimes it is 60 percent. Sometimes it is 70.

A list of at least a hundred candidates who passed the test, beginning with the names of those who made the highest marks and coming down the line, is now certified by the Board of Examiners and sent downstairs to the office of the Police Commissioner. After That He Picks Whom He Pleases

From this list, he may pick anyone he pleases to fill existing vacancies in the ranks of the patrolmen. He is not required to select the candidate with the highest grade first. He can pick ‘em out anywhere on the list. And if he wants another list, the Board of Examiners must supply it.

Having made a tentative selection for appointment, the commissioner calls in a couple of men from the Detective Department and assigns them to investigate the persons who have endorsed the candidate's original application, and to scout around the candidate's neighborhood and find out just what kind of a fellow he is. Physical Examination Is Next Hurdle

If the candidate survives this test he is called into police headquarters for a complete physical examination by one of the department's half dozen physicians. When pronounced one hundred percent sound by the doctor, he is appointed a member of the force and assigned to duty in one of the eight districts.

An attaché of the commissioner's office takes the appointee up Fayette street to the Courthouse. In Room·205, the office of Stephen C. Little, clerk of the Superior Court of Baltimore city, the appointee is sworn into the police service with the following oath: "I . . . do swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland and support the Constitution and laws thereof; and that I will to the best of my skill and judgment, diligently, faithfully, without partiality or prejudice, execute the office of probation officer of the police force of the city of Baltimore according to the Constitution and laws of the State. "Presto! He's A Policeman

This oath is printed in a gray indexed ledger, the police test book, kept on file at the clerk's office. After taking the oath with up-raised hand, the probationer signs his name in the test book, initials the district to which he has been assigned and sets down the date.

He's a policeman now. But he doesn't know anything about his job. He.

doesn't have any equipment. So back to police headquarters he goes and, takes the elevator to the fifth floor to report to the Police Department's School of Instruction for an eight-week in course in policing. Veteran Of 37 Years Is Teacher

Right next door to the offices of the Board of Police Examiners, the School of Instruction occupies the greater part of the fifth floor in the Police Building's south wing. It is one big room, subdivided by rows of steel lockers. At a large desk just inside the door sits the schoolteacher, Lieut. Adelbert J. Plantholt, a gray-haired police officer of thirty-seven years experience.

Here the probation officer receives his stick (known almost exclusively in Baltimore as an espantoon), pistol, a badge, cap device, whistle and a key to police telephone and signal boxes.

As a rule, this is a piece of second-hand equipment previously used by the officer whose death, resignation or dismissal created the vacancy to which the probation officer has been appointed. Goes About Armed At All Times

Like any other officer, the probationer is supposed to carry his pistol badge, whistle and key with him at all times, in uniform or out, and to arrest violators of the law who come within his jurisdiction. He may not know at first what his jurisdiction is, But Lieutenant Plantholt will put him wise.

To facilitate the increase of his wisdom, the probation officer receives a copy of the rules and regulations of the Police Department, a 500-page digest of state and city laws, a booklet containing the automobile laws another containing the traffic laws and, an American Red Cross book of first aid instruction. BUYS Own Clothes At $100 An Outfit

He attends school every day except Sunday from 8.30 to 4 in his civilian clothes. A week or so after his induction he goes down to a clothing establishment at Baltimore Street and Market Place to be measured for his uniforms. But he won't wear a uniform, except for his own delectation, until he has completed his course of instruction and been assigned to regular duty.

At his own expense he is required to buy a dress uniform coat with a double row of brass buttons for spring and fall wear, a uniform blouse with open lapels for summer, a winter overcoat, and the necessary trousers. This outfit stands him about $100.Shoes, Neckties And Such Are Extra

Collar ornaments are included with his uniforms. But the black shoes and black neckties required by department regulations are extra. So is a raincoat, or a pair of gloves, or a pair of gumboots, if he wants them. All police uniforms proper, of fixed specifications, are supplied by one firm of clothing manufacturers, chosen by the department on a basis of competitive bids. This firm has a contract with the department, and until his uniforms are paid for deductions of $1 a week are made from the probation officer's pay. They start at $35, Minus 2%

During his first year, when he is rated as a patrolman, third grade, his pay is $35 a week, less a deduction of two percent. for the police pension fund. During his second year, when he advances to the rank of patrolman, second grade, he gets $37.50 a week. As a first-class patrolman, after two years of probation, he should draw $40 a week. Paydays come twice a month, on the first and the sixteenth.

The probation officer does not pass through his early training period alone. He is a member of a class in the police school. Probationers are usually appointed in groups of ten or twenty, " possibly half a dozen times a year, depending upon the turnover of the department.

During 1936 only forty-three new patrolmen were appointed to the force.

“It's a good job," says President Wicks, of the Board of Police Examiners. "A policeman seldom wants to give it up."


Police Captain-Did the prisoner offer any resistance? Answer-Only one buck, and I wouldn't take it.

3. Cop Who Made A Tough Beat Tender Prepares Rookies To Be Officers

You'll Find No Circus Stunts Or Movie Equipment In Lieutenant Plantholt's School, For There Beginners Learn "The Works" On Policing

The policeman-you know him. Where does he come? And how?

The following article is the third of a series of five telling how a Baltimorean becomes a policeman.

By Lee McCardell September 22, 1937

Lavishly arrayed with all the generalities and semicolons dear to a legislator’s heart the powers and duties of the police of Baltimore are set forth at great length in Section 744 of the city charter.

The policeman's bible, a little black book of department rules and regulations boils it all down to this:

"It is the duty of policemen, at all times, both and night preserve the peace: detect and prevent crime, arrest offenders, protect the rights of persons and property; guard the public health to enforce all laws and ordinances, the enforcement of which devolves upon the police force, and to obey all orders and rules and regulations of the Police department.

But even this is pretty broad. The laws of Baltimore city specifically direct policemen to arrest everybody from persons who breed mosquitoes to people to people who "tie the month of any calf to prevent its drawing from the cow its natural and accustomed food. Where is a green policeman supposed to start?

He goes to school for eight weeks, to find out. No Circus Stunts In This School

There is nothing fancy about the Baltimore Police School of Instruction on the fifth floor of the Police Building at Fayette street and the Fallsway.

Its students are not trained to perform any circus stunts on horseback or motorcycles. Down at the end of the corridor there’s a big gymnasium for any policeman who wants to use it. But the members of the force are "not even taught to wrestle, box or swim.

The study:

1. The powers and duties of police.

2. Department orders, rules and regulations the keeping of records and the making out of reports.

3. Traffic rules and regulations and the handling of traffic.

4. The laws of the State and the ordinances of the city, the enforcement of which devolve upon the police.

5. Procedure in courts at law and at coroner's inquests and the preparation and giving of testimony.

6. First aid to the injured.

7. Setting-up and gymnasium exercises.

8. The care of revolvers and revolver practice. School's Director Made A Tough Beat Tender



Sun Paper Pic 1936
Standing could be the Class Instructor Lt. Adelbert J. Plantholt

Lieut. Adelbert J. Plantholt, director of the school ever since it was established seventeen years ago, was a powerful' white-haired man who had twenty-one years of hard practical policing to his credit before he began teaching probation officers.

Plantholt joined the force in 1901 as a patrolman in the Northeastern district. He was assigned to a beat so tough that it was only one block wide and two blocks long. When he got through with it, it was so tender that, it was added to another officer's beat.

Promoted to the rank of sergeant, Plantholt was transferred to the Northwestern district, assigned to duty on Pennsylvania Avenue, the main stem of Baltimore's Negro section. As a round sergeant, he went to the Southwestern District. Then former Commissioner Gaither called him in, made him a lieutenant and told him to take charge of the police school. Since then the lieutenant has started off more than 2,000 rookie policemen. Score Goes Up Yearly And Reaches 99 P. C. Every year when the Board of Police Examiners gives its test to make up an eligible list of lieutenants for promotion to the grade of captain, Lieutenant Plantholt finishes first. Every year his score gets a little higher. Last January when the last examination was held, he made ninety-nine percent. The good policeman, as Lieutenant Plantholt sees him, has four cardinal virtues. These are first, observation, second, ability to get information, third, patience; and, fourth. perseverance and hard work. The lieutenant gives the probationers a little talk along this line when they first arrive in the police school. He reminds them of his four points as they go along.Rookies Begin Their Day At 8.30 am A typical day in the police school begins at 8.30 A.M. when the lieutenant leads his class of fifteen or twenty probation officers in a half-hour of physical exercise. From 9 until 9.30 they have a period of simple, close-order military drill. There is plenty of room for both calisthenics and drill in the big schoolroom, which is practically a hall. Then comes a fifteen-minute recess. Off to one side of the schoolroom is an alcove with benches, chairs, and tables. Here the student officers relax, talk, smoke if they want to. The lieutenant enjoys a smoke himself. He prefers a pipe. He has a rack of assorted pipes on his main desk lip in the front corner of the room. Recess Ends And First Aid Instruction Starts At the end of the fifteen-minute recess school takes in again with first-aid instruction-also by Lieutenant Plantholt who teaches everything in the school's curriculum. There are cots, blankets, and a small white iron hospital bed at the lower end of the room for demonstrations in first aid. A lecture on some phase of police work follows. For this, the students seat themselves in rows of broad-armed chairs ranged, at one side of the room before a platform on which the lieutenant has a chair and desk with a blackboard behind him. He lectures without notes, encourages questions, draws on his own twenty-one years of practical experience on the street for examples of police work. Class Takes Books And Studies Law At the conclusion of this lecture the class gets out its books and reads and discusses the police digest of city and state law. That takes them up around noon. From noon until 12:30 their time is their own for lunch. After lunch they study the Police Departments own 150 page book of rules and regulations that get down to the fine points of police conduct and deportment by reminding an officer that he must especially avoid giving cause for gossip or scandal by idly conversing with women in the streets when he is in uniform, whether on his post or not. Soft-Spoken Courtesy Expected Of Officers Furthermore, that policemen should be quiet and soft-spoken, and that: When asked a question they shall not answer in a short or abrupt manner, but with all attention and courtesy, at the same time avoiding as much as possible entering into unnecessary conversation. And it probably comes as a disappointment to the cockier probationer to read: ": Members of the force shall not swing or toy with their espantoons, but shall carry them as inconspicuously as possible. They Find There's A Rule For Almost Everything More important, perhaps, than these scraps of etiquette, a policeman learns from his book of rules and regulations just exactly what he is supposed to do in case of fire, riot, accident, drowning, sudden death or other emergencies. And how to arrest people, handle prisoners, dispose of stolen property and lost children if he finds any. There is a rule and regulation, it seems, for everything a policeman may have to do. When Lieutenant Plantholt thinks his class has had enough rules and regulations for one dose he changes the subject to automobile law. Then they have another recess and another lecture. The day winds up with the class study of a model police report of a murder, suicide, burglary or larceny. Each probationer then writes up a similar report of his own. Lieutenant Corrects And Criticizes Papers These are collected by the lieutenant, corrected and criticized. The student officers also have oral and written Quizzes from time to time. They are not graded on any numerical basis. It's a matter of discretion with the lieutenant as to whether their progress is satisfactory. On easels set up in the schoolroom are permanent displays of permits and badges with which a policeman should be familiar, and of the different types of automobile tags and licenses that he should know. Around the walls hang pistol charts and police photographs of scenes of Baltimore crimes. On the bulletin board are copies of police orders and flyers. Miniature Streets Are There To Study A real police telegraph and signal box, back to back with a real fire alarm box, stands on a revolving pedestal beside the blackboard. On a table behind the blackboard is a layout of miniature streets with toy streetcar and automobile traffic. And once a week Lieutenant Plantholt takes his class down in the basement for revolver instruction and target practice on the police pistol range. The length of a period devoted to anyone subject is variable; inasmuch as the Lieutenant teaches everything himself. It may be thirty minutes. It may be two hours. That's one of the conveniences of having everything under one man. The lieutenant wishes he had more room and some additional equipment--no microscopes. No jujitsu teachers. Nothing like that. "That's all right on the stage," he says. "It looks pretty. "But in practical policing a good mental photograph is worth more than a microscope. In a real fight, there are no rules. It's a question of getting in there quick-getting in any way, just so you get there first." 4. Police School Methods Give Rookie A Chance To Show His Stuff In Jiffy "Field Work" Breaks Him In On Every Phase Of Job, And He's Doing Valuable. Duty Even Before He Gets UniformThe policeman-you know him. Where does he come from? And how? The following article is the fourth of a series of five telling how a Baltimorean becomes a policeman. By Lee McCardeIl September 23, 1937 Probation officers have no homework to do when they leave the Police School of Instruction at 4:30 in the afternoon after a hard day of rules and regulations. But every Wednesday and Saturday night they report to police district station houses for what might academically be termed "fieldwork," In plain clothes and chaperoned by full-fledged experienced officers, they do regular police work then. Sometimes they cover a post with the uniformed patrolman, learning the routine tricks of the trade. Sometimes they do special duty with plain-clothes men. This part of a student officer's training is entirely in the hands of the captain commanding the district to which the probationer is assigned when appointed to the force. The captain picks out the job and fixes the hours. Captain Charles A. Kahler, Western district commander, to whom three probationers now attending the police school reports twice a week, recalls that in the old day's policemen went on duty abruptly without the benefit of any previous instruction whatsoever, either formal or field. Man Didn't Even Have Time To Get Uniform He remembers being notified of his own appointment to the force on April 1, 1901, and of being ordered that same day to report for duty that night at the Northeastern Police Station. He remembers borrowing a helmet, a nightstick and a uniform coat from an older officer whom he knew. That was the custom in those days. A man didn't have time to get a uniform of his own when he was starting out. Self-conscious in his borrowed outfit on the sleeve of the coat were four stripes of black braid indicating twenty years of service by its owner at the new policeman posted a younger brother In front of the Kahler home on Orleans street to watch for a streetcar. When the car came along, Patrolman Kahler dashed out in such a hurry that he upset a child playing on the sidewalk. He Was Handed A Badge, And Off He Went He reached the police station on the verge of a nervous collapse, fearing he had injured the child he had knocked down and might be subject for arrest himself. He telephoned his home and felt better when he learned that the youngster was all right. But the new officer was still far from being calm. He was handed a badge and a number for his borrowed helmet. He joined a squad of officers, including several other greenhorns, that followed a sergeant out of the police station. At Madison Square, they halted. “This is your post,” the sergeant told Kahler "Caroline to Central Avenue, Eager to Preston street. I'll come back and see you later. A Nice Short Cut, And What It Led To Left to himself to get along as best mo he could Kahler did what he had seen other policemen do. He walked the streets of his beat, but by taking a short cut through Madison Square neglected the corner of Caroline and Eager streets. This was the very corner the returning sergeant picked to meet his new officer, figuring that Kahler ought to pass there if he patrolled his post properly. The sergeant waited for two hours-until somebody finally told Kahler that he was waiting. Kahler 's hurried to meet him. The sergeant was pretty hot "You can be taken down before the commissioners (there used to be three) for this, he stormed. "On my first night?" moaned the new policeman. He wasn't taken before the commissioners. He learned to be a good policeman. But that was something an officer taught himself thirty-six years ago. Things Nowadays Are Quite Different Nowadays they do things differently. Assignment to actual duty is not so sudden. The student officer begins as an observer. He is not schooled for any particular post or position. He serves a general apprenticeship, gets a taste of all kinds of policing and an idea of his entire district before he puts on his uniform. That apprenticeship runs concurrently with the probationer's attendance at the police School. He reports at the station house for his semiweekly tour of duty with a badge, revolver whistle, and call-box key. But he is in civilian clothes. Those assigned to the Western District and the practice here is the same as that generally followed in the other districts--are sent to various posts with different patrolmen, but never with the same officer or to the same post twice. Wednesday night the student officer goes to a post in the residential section. Saturday night it's the business section. Next Wednesday night the, market section. Next Saturday night a Negro section. Every Neighborhood Poses New Problem

He learns the boundaries of the different posts, their streets, courts, and alleys, the locations of the red fire alarm boxes and the green police signal and telegraph boxes. He learns to keep an eye on unoccupied buildings, cheap saloons, and traffic. Each neighborhood presents a different problem to a policeman. On special assignments with experienced plainclothes policemen, he investigates alleged disorderly houses, suspected gambling establishments. In some respects, this sort of work is his most important contribution to the police department at the beginning of his career. The old experienced plain-clothes men of the district are often known to persons who make a point of tipping off a suspect whenever they show up. But the new student officers, strangers to the neighborhood, a policeman is never assigned to a post on which he lives-manage to get into places and see things where the experienced man can't. The Sort Of Place Where New Man Shines Perhaps it's a house where gambling is going on. The place may be wide open. But when the old plain-clothes man barges in he merely finds a few people sitting around playing cards. The student officer gets upstairs, before anyone knows who he is and, maybe finds a big-league crap game running full blast. Because he is unknown and unsuspected, a student officer can go into a store where pinball machine checks are being redeemed in money contrary to law-and make out a case for an arrest. He can go into a bookmaking establishment and do the same thing. He can drop into a tavern where liquor is being sold illegally on a beer and wine license and buy a pint that I would be refused to a known ·plain clothes policeman. Some Of His Quarry ~ Actually Welcome Him Streetwalkers, plentiful in some neighborhoods but uncannily wary of the ordinary plain-clothes man, flirt with probation officers, without hesitation. The student officers are invited to disorderly houses. Fortune tellers welcome them and tell them all the things that a regular plain-clothes man can never tempt them to recite. In all these cases, of course, a regular plain-clothes man follows on the heels of the tenderfoot, backing him up immediately once a law violation is uncovered The student officer is sent ahead to prepare the way. He is something of a bait. When he finds what the experienced officer is looking for he gives a signal and the pinch 'is made. Then Come Occasional Assignments Alone After they have begun to learn their way around, student officers occasionally are sent out alone on relatively unimportant assignments. Perhaps a minor traffic situation at some intersection. Or a bunch of boys throwing stones at windows. Innumerable complaints of this sort are being received constantly at the station houses. Saturday night is the big pocketbook snatching night of the week. Many women are on the street marketing for Sunday. The methods by which the pocketbook snatchers operate are explained carefully to the probationers, who are then posted in localities where trouble has occurred or is anticipated. A. week or so ago a student officer, assigned to the Western district and stationed on the. Washington Boulevard to watch for purse snatchers, saw a man go down an alley and break open a window. The officer went after him and caught him-a burglar. Night Duty First, Then Daytime Turns, As a rule, the student officers report to their station houses at 6 o'clock and work until 11. But sometimes they are called on day duty. The district commander phones Lieutenant Plantholt, at the Police school, asks that a certain student be permitted to leave the class and report early for some special assignment. In the meanwhile, instruction continues at the police school with lectures, discussions, and demonstrations. At the end of eight weeks, the probation officers are given a final examination. Lieutenant Plantholt gives them a last talking to, a bit of fatherly advice along personal and intimate lines. That constitutes their graduation. Men Studied To See Where They Best Fit The captain of each police district studies the probationers assigned to his command, tries to figure out where each man will be most useful. A new officer who formerly did clerical work is probably best suited for duty in a residential section. A former truck driver, harder boiled than the clerk is the better of the two men for work in a lively Negro section. At the same time, such a section calls for a man who is calm and cool, and who Isn’t afraid of anything on earth. If a probationer proves himself unusually useful as a plain-clothes man, he may remain on plain-clothes duty for a while, even after he has completed his eight-week course of training. A new officer is rarely assigned to a regular post when he first goes on full-time duty. He is more likely to be used as a relief than for any post.

5. Patrolman's Interlude:

Bandits Strike At 2:13, They're Caught At 2:15

But There's More Of Routine, Button-Polishing, Bowling And Such; $4,500,000 Force Grew From Time-Calling Night Watch

The policeman-you know him. Where does he come from? And how?

"The following article is the last of a series of five telling how a Baltimorean becomes a policeman.

By Lee McCardell September 24, 1937

AT 2:13 P.M. an automatic burglar alarm from a branch bank at Park Heights and Spaulding Avenue rang at police headquarters.

At 2:14 a police radio car was dispatched to the bank

At 2:15 the two policemen manning the radio car entered the bank with drawn pistols, disarmed two bandits who had held up three clerks and were attempting to open a vault equipped with a time lock and alarm system.

But Baltimore's police force doesn't always move at that pace. Police work isn't always that dramatic. Probation officers learn this even before they been graduated from the police School of Instruction and gone out on their own.

They discover, moreover, that a policeman is nearly always working overtime without receiving any extra put pay. Whenever he has a case that takes hat him to the station house he works about two hours extra. If he has one that takes him to the Traffic Court he works four hours overtime. If he has a case that reaches the higher courts he may be tied up all day while working at night.7 Days A Week Plus Special Duty

He is supposed work only eight hours a day on one of three shifts -8 A. M. to 4 P. M., 4 P. M. to midnight, and midnight to 8 A. M. Sunday is just another day in his life. He is allowed forty days leave a year, which puts him on a six-day-plus week. But he is subject to call for special duty at any time, and it seems to him that he is usually called just when he'd like to apply for a leave.

He has not worked long before he also begins to realize that there's more truth than poetry in Walt Mason's famous verses, "The Policeman," framed by Lieut. Plantholt and hung on the wall of his schoolroom.And What Does He Get? The Horse Laugh

The burden of those verses is that while the policeman daily risks his a neck for general order and public safety, the general public sits back in a rocking chair, laughs at him, abuses him and finds fault with almost everything he does.

For two years a new policeman remains on trial. Every three months the captain of his district sends a report on his conduct and efficiency to the office of the chief inspector at headquarters. At any time during those two years of probation, he may be dismissed from the force without any charges being brought against him. Another Physical Test, Another Oath

At the end of his first year of probation, he must stand another physical examination. If he passes this and completes the second year of service satisfactorily, he makes another trip to the Courthouse and repeats his oath in the Superior Court clerk's office, this time swearing to "execute the office of patrolman of the police force of the' city of Baltimore" and signing another test book to this effect.

Then and only then, is he a full-fledged policeman.He Learns About Buttons And Electroplates

By this time he has learned how to preserve the lacquer of his brass buttons and yet keep them bright with an old toothbrush and a bottle of household ammonia. He has found a place where he can have his nickeled cap device and badge electroplated cheaply while he waits.

He has learned how to extend the normal life of a police uniform by taking it off when he gets home and put on old clothes, and by not holding his hands behind his back-a habit that will plant a grease spot on the back of the best uniform coat.Specialization Has It’s Appeal

As time goes on he may grow bored with ordinary duty on a regular post.

He may think he'd like to specialize. The traffic division, the detective bureau, the harbor patrol, the radio and horse and vehicle divisions each have their own particular appeal. He can ask to be transferred when a vacancy occurs.

As long as he remains a patrolman on post duty he is under the immediate supervision of a sergeant who marches him back and forth between his post and the station house, inspects his equipment, watches his behavior and otherwise contrives to keep him on his toes with his pants creased and his shoes polished.6 Or 8 Years, Then Chance At Promotion

After he has been on the force for six or eight years, the patrolman may take another examination before the Board of Police Examiners in an effort to get his own name on the list of patrolmen eligible for promotion to the rank of sergeant. A sergeant gets a base pay of $46.50 a week.

But even if the officer remains a patrolman his pay increases at the rate of two and a half percent every five years until he has thirty years of service to his credit. Should he become injured in the discharge of his duty at any time after appointment as a probation officer, he is eligible for the retirement of half of the pay he is then receiving. He is also eligible for retirement after sixteen years of service if certified as incapable of performing further duty.

$268,860 Goes To Retired Men

Last year the department had a payroll of $268,860.44 for retired members of the force. Retired officers are subject only to the department's rules of good conduct. If they can find another in a job while drawing their pension, the department has no objection. Some retired officers get work as bank guards. Others are employed as private watchmen.

Once an officer reaches the rank of sergeant he is in line to take another examination for another eligible list for appointment as a lieutenant at a salary of $55 a week. Lieutenants, in turn, take an examination for an eligible list for appointment as captain of a district. with pay at $70 a week. The captain of detectives gets $80.Inspectors Get $4,500 A Year

The higher the rank, of course, the less the chance of promotion. There are only five positions in the department higher than the rank of captain. These are three inspectorships, which pay $4,500 a year; the chief inspector-ship, which pays $5,000, and the position of Police Commissioner never yet held by a former policeman with a salary of $10,000 a year. Inspectors are appointed from the rank of captain without any examination. The commissioner, who makes all appointments and promotions from the various eligible lists, comes into office by way of Gubernatorial appointment.

He may know as little about actual policing as a probation officer. But the department can function with a commissioner without a commissioner or in spite of a commissioner.

The chief inspector, while under the direction of the commissioner, is the chief executive officers of the police and detective force, He keeps the police machine running smoothly on an annual budget of about $4,500,000, or approximately a dime out of every dollar collected in city taxes. First Force, In 1775, was A Night Watch

The present setup of the department, dating from 1920; represents an evolution of more than 150 years.

Baltimore's police began in 1775 with a night watch that called the quarter hours, prevented drunks from smashing the street lamps and arrested night walkers, malefactors and other suspicious persons between the hours of10 P.M. and daybreak.

At first the town was divided into six districts and Fells Point, with a captain and a squad of sixteen watchmen for each division. Later the watch was reorganized and the town was divided into three districts, Eastern, Middle and Western. Not until 1843, when it was suggested that watchmen were tipping off prowlers as to their whereabouts by bawling the hour, was that grand old custom discontinued in Baltimore.Real Department Organized In 1857

In 1857 a regular Police Department, as police departments are known today, began to emerge from a loose organization of ward constables and night watchmen. A marshal, a deputy marshal, 8 captains, 24 sergeants, 350 patrolmen, 5 detective officers and 8 turnkeys constituted that force. One third of this force was on duty during the daytime and two-thirds after dark. Headquarters was two rooms on North street, now Guilford avenue, near Fayette.

This police force wore three-inch stars embroidered in white worsted on the left bosom of their blue uniform coats. The word police was painted in one inch bold Roman letter on their glazed leather belts. They wore their uniforms at all times in public, whether on duty or off. Subject to duty at any time, they had no hours. Their pay ranged from $10 a week for patrolmen to $1,500 a year for the marshal.Riots Led to Creation Of Police Commission

The Mayor of Baltimore enjoyed control of its police force until 1860 when election riots and political rowdyism led to the creation of a board of police commissioners. Thereafter, policemen were required to be able to read and write and the force was known as the "Metropolitan Police." It had trouble with the volunteer fire companies. When lacking fires to fight, the volunteers practiced on the cops.

The Metropolitan police got a stiff workout when the Massachusetts troops passed through Baltimore in 1861. Later that year Federal troops moved into the city and arrested the police commissioners, the marshal, and other officers. After the Civil War the force underwent another reorganization. Anticipating civil disturbances, the police drilled at their station houses with Springfield muskets. As early as1867 Baltimore's police established a reputation for benevolence by contributing 25 cents of their fortnightly pay for relief among the poor during the winter. As a police organization, they distinguished themselves on several occasions, notably during a flood in 1868, railroad riots in 1877, a horse-car strike in 1886 and the Baltimore fire of 1904.Oath Bars Prejudice, But Jews Are Scarce

In their oath of office the members of the Board of Police Examiners swear not to be influenced by the religious or political affiliations of applicants when nominating eligible candidates for appointment. But the number of Jews in the Police Department has never been large. There are not more than ten Jewish policemen now.

Virginia and the Maryland Eastern Shore provided many of the city's policemen immediately after the Civil War. Others were of German and Irish Stock, some of them immigrants.

At one time almost ninety percent of the police force was Irish. Today the Irish are on the decline. The number of officers of Polish extraction is increasing. Old-Time Athletic Fervor On Decline

Along about the time the Irish cop was in his prime, each police district had its own athletic teams. One of the big events of the year was the police gymnastic exhibition at Ford's Theater. Since then the police have lost interest in such things. The advance of the minimum-age requirement for probation officers from 21 to 25 is partly blamed for this apathy.

Aside from their regular work, the police now have a band, an orchestra, a quartette, a department baseball team, pistol teams, and a bowling league. Many officers are still members of the Police Beneficial Association, an optional insurance society organized by members of the department in 1886.

Baltimore's police force has no motto. But obviously, it has traditions. And police work is not without its attractions. Notwithstanding the pessimism of Mr. Mason and W. S. Gilbert, a Baltimore policeman does not regard his lot as an unhappy one.

"There's something about a policeman.”

The following are Holsters one time owned by Inspector Forrest

The following two Holsters were purchased from a seller of antique firearms, leather and other police related Antiquities. This seller was selling these for Charles "Charlie" Klein, Charlie is 84 years old as of the time of this post (April 2014) he said he got these from his Uncle William Forest, a one time Inspector. 


Pocket Holster from the Late 1800's early 1900's


Pocket Holster from the Late 1800's early 1900's


Pocket Holster from the Late 1800's early 1900's


Audley Saftey Holster Pat. 13 Oct. 1914

 57 17

On the right, we see the rear of the Audley Safety Holster Pat. 13 Oct. 1914


On the right, we see the rear of the Audley Safety Holster Pat. 13 Oct. 1914

The Audley Safety Holster Company was established in the early 1900s, prior to 1905, by F. H. Audley who had previously been a Saddle, Harness, and Bootmaker. These were trades he had learned early in life as a young boy and developed over 30 in the Saddlery and Harness business.

Having started his own saddlery business in New York, at 2557 Third Avenue (Near 139th Street), in approximately 1876 and operating until 1885, F. H. Audley closed his business and went into business with Mr. P. H. Comerford remaining in Saddlery, Harness & Boot making. In 1891, Frank H. Audley went back into business himself and although making quality saddlery and boots, he struggled over the next 10 years until the turn of the century.

In the early 1900s, F. H. Audley moved his shop to 8 Centre Market Place, across from Police Headquarters and it was at this time he starting getting a lot of exposure to Police equipment. From this time, F. H. Audley filed many patents for various pieces of Police equipment which he developed and sold to many of the New York City Police Officers that utilized the services from his accessible location.

The most famous of these inventions was the Audley Safety Holster which F. H. Audley applied for patents in 1912 and they were approved October 13, 1914. The holster incorporates a spring-loaded steel catch in the body of the holster which securely holds the pistol in place. It can only be released by using the index finger to depress the catch. It is virtually impossible for anyone other than the person wearing the holster to do this. No other retaining strap is required.

They were popular with many officers in WW1 and were also used by many American Police Departments. The Audley Company was taken over by the Folsom Arms Co., which in turn was absorbed by the Cortland Bootjack Co, and eventually became the JayPee holster company. This particular model was probably used by a motorcycle or horse-mounted officer of the 1920-30 period.

Francis H. Audley Died in May of 1916 and by chance, I was able to find a copy of the Obituary from the New York Times May 11, 1916

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Copies of: Your Baltimore Police Department Class Photo, Pictures of our Officers, Vehicles, Equipment, Newspaper Articles relating to our department and or officers, Old Departmental Newsletters, Lookouts, Wanted Posters, and or Brochures. Information on Deceased Officers and anything that may help Preserve the History and Proud Traditions of this agency. Please contact Retired Detective Kenny Driscoll.

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How to Dispose of Old Police Items

Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department.

Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll 


Traffic Lights

Wednesday, 05 February 2020 23:03

- Traffic Lights



Traffic lights got their start with man operated Police Officer Posted Semaphore Devices, initially using what was known as the, "Go Go - Stop Stop" system, which was a Semaphore system of sorts, a pole with two intersecting signs, when turned one way it would say Go - Go and turned 90 degree to change it to saying Stop - Stop. Later they added a railroad lantern with Green and Red lenses to match with the Go Go - Stop Stop. There was also some debate as to whether we needed a two color or three color system, NYPD chiefs of police argued for a simple two color system, while Baltimore Police Commissioner Charles D. Gaither felt without a third color to warn traffic that Red was coming, we would end up with cars that were turning left stranded in intersections, likewise pedestrians left standing in the middle of a crosswalk. So he argued for and gained the support of Triple A to have an Amber light between the Green and Red light so as to give pedestrians and left turning vehicles fair warning. These colors would play an important role in another lighting system Commissioner Gaither was working on at the time, and that was his Police Call Box Recall Light System. Using spare nautical lighting, for the Recall Lights, his options were limited to Red, Green, White and Amber and Blue. He initially had Green and Red but feared from a distance an officer might mistake it for a traffic light, Not to mention around this same time, the automatic traffic light was being introduces, and in Baltimore like DC these lights were placed on the corner. To drivers new to this system, distinguishing between a traffic light, and a police Recall Light was often confusing. So while there were some Green and Red recall lights in the initial testing most of the red and green lenses were replaced relatively quickly. For a short time they used some blue lenses, but ran into issues of cost, at the time the Cobalt used to make blue glass was expensive and as such Blue was also eliminated. White, or Clear glass as it would have been was not even considered (though in a pinch would have been used with a colored bulb) They felt clear with a white bulb might blend in too much with street lights. So the color finally settled on was Amber. One might think it would provide the same issues found with Red and Green, except the Amber used was more of a Tan/Brown color whereas the Amber used on Traffic lights was as it is today most often described as Yellow. Over the years we had some Red lights from early in the program, and some Blue, but most commonly found is the Amber lens. Some old news articles wrote of the Green light, but in our research we found they were very early on and most if not all were replaced before the 1930s Anyway this page is more geared toward the traffic light and how it got its start here in Baltimore. 

1 black devider 800 8 72 The Baltimore Sun Mon Apr 19 1915 traffic light72


The Evening Sun Thu Jan 27 1916 72

Baltimore's First Semaphore & The Traffic Officers that Worked Them

1915 18 April 1915 - Patrolman William E. Hartley demonstrated his new traffic signal out at the intersection of Park Heights and Belvedere Avenues where it was met with the expectations of the Police department. The patrolman's device was described as follows. The signal was painted red on two sides, with the word "STOP" in bold white letters. When the sign is reversed, traffic is open and when the red side is displayed traffic is closed. The signal saves the officer operating it the trouble of blowing of a whistle, or raising his hands to keep traffic moving.

1916  – 26 January 1916 - The Police Board ordered 25 semaphores for street crossing - A further step in regulating street traffic by the police department was taken yesterday [26 Jan 1916] when a new semaphore [Baltimore's first] was stationed at Howard and Lexington Streets to guide vehicles. This system was first used and tested by Patrolman Thomas Oursler of Baltimore's Traffic Division and witnessed by Marshal Carter, Deputy Marshal House, President of Police Board of commissioners Daniel Ammidon, and several members of Baltimore's Safety First Federation. This is the original system which was composed of two large green signs with the words "GO" and two intersecting red signs that read "STOP." It was operated via a pole inside of a pole that was stopped by a small handle, allowing the officer a way of turning that handle to change the indication for intersecting traffic to have in their view either the green "GO" signs or the red "STOP" signs. These were later surrounded by a white metal drum that the patrolman could stand inside of making him more visible to traffic. Eventually, they would include an umbrella to both keep the patrolman dry on rainy days and cool on hot sunny days by providing him with some shade. Sitting on top of this Semaphore was a four-way railroad lantern converted for traffic use with the addition of two red lenses and two green lenses so that in low light dusk and dawn drivers could more easily read the Stop and Go signs and follow the traffic patterns directed by the patrolmen that worked these Semaphores.

Howard and Lexington Streets were the first to be added in that January of 1916 and one of the last removed in late May early June of 1920 by Col. Chas Gaither, who went back to the whistle and point control that we see being used today. The public at the time thought the Semaphores were safer and argued to get them back. For pedestrian safety Traffic Officers were instructed to stop cars four feet behind the building line to allow room for pedestrians to more safely cross the streets.

1920  – 7 June 1920 not long after Gaither ordered the removal of the Semaphores the Commissioner was forced to go back on his ideas and as such he ordered two of the Semaphores to be returned, those units were located at the intersections of Light and Redwood, and Light and Pratt Streets. Gaither said he had not changed his mind about the Semaphores, but in checking the locations, he felt there was sufficient room between the corners of the intersections for traffic to move through without interference from the Semaphores.

1922 – 18 July 1922 – Traffic Officers will be allowed to appear coatless on job while wearing attractive white Oxford Shirts. These officers will start wearing long sleeve white Oxford shirts with a low, turned-down collar and a black tie as they preside to direct traffic on their assigned street corners.

1925 – 6 June 1925 – General Charles Gaither issued an order, effective, 6 June 1925 all members of the Baltimore Police Department who are on duty between 8 A.M. and 4 P.M. may remove their coats provided they are wearing a white Oxford shirt, and a black tie. This privilege has been granted for the previous two years for department’s traffic officers.

1930  – 19 June 1930 Baltimore Police try a new system for regulating east and westbound traffic on Pratt Street independently; at the intersection of Light Street, was given a trial period to eliminate traffic jams, that were being reported by Inspector George Lurz. Pratt and Light Streets according to statistics compiled by the traffic division showed the location to be among the busiest in the city during daylight hours for vehicular traffic. At the time the control system was confusing by allowing east and westbound traffic to move simultaneously. Westbound traffic was making a left-hand turn onto Light Street interfering with eastbound traffic. So a 3-way Semaphore was being planned to control the traffic better using members of the Traffic Division that would be stationed in the tower at the intersection. The department believed this to be the answer to the problem at what was at the time described as a confusing intersection. The intersection was controlled by a single officer using the old hand controlled Semaphore which was designed with Red-STOP and Green-GO. What made this system a, "3-way system" is where other arrangements have Green-GO, Red-STOP, they added Amber-CAUTION. With its intent is to warn drivers on Green that they are approaching an intersection that is about to change to Red. These 3-way signals were placed on all four sides of the Semaphore Tower. The Red and Green Lights have been helpful, but the addition of the Amber Light has been the answer to a lot of problems throughout the city as it pertains to traffic patterns. This was especially true of confusing or busy intersections. So basically, what they were calling a "Three-Way System," was Baltimore's introduction of the Amber Light to the Red and Green Lights.

1935  – July of 1935 After learning of a system put into place in Hartford Connecticut, Baltimore's Traffic Division would add radio's to Semaphores at strategic locations throughout our city. With this they could receive up to the minute information on stolen cars [or tag plates] wanted people that could be coming their way. Even more helpful in the possible saving of Baltimore lives was how they arraigned to set things up so that we could share information with Baltimore City's Fire Department. When provided, information on active fires, our Traffic Officers could control traffic patterns thereby clearing intersections, making it easier for fire equipment to more quickly get to the scene of active fires, or medical emergency.

1951  – End of August 1951  the Enclosed Box/Booth style, and or Tower style Semaphores [seen in the attached 1951 photos] that were initially introduced in 1924 and last used in August of 1951. These Box/Booth style units came in the style that looked like a phone booth, or another version that had the box/booth affixed on top a tower.

1956 – 29 June 1956 – Casual But Official, Patrolman Donald Miller displayed the latest open-neck short-sleeve police shirts that would be worn for the remainder of the [1956] summer by Baltimore's officers. Police officials stressed that only a specific model Oxford shirt has been approved, thereby eliminating the danger of patrolmen selecting the more brightly colored type shirts of their liking.

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 A Semaphore with a Booth

The Evening Sun Thu Jan 27 1916 72 1

Gaither ordered two of the Semaphores that had been taken out of service to be returned. 

Downtown Traffic Policeman Charles and Pratt1921

Semaphore Booth with a Green and Red Railroad Lantern affixed to the top of the Semaphore above the Go--Go Stop-Stop Signs called that because to on coming traffic they either saw Go-Go or Stop-Stop atop the sign as they entered the intersection

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The Evening Sun Thu Aug 30 1951 72

Traffic Control Traffic Control System

s l1600 1920 Semaphore

This was donated to us by a guy in Middleton, Idaho who appreciates the hard work our police do and where we have come from in history t be where we are today. Looking at the history of our traffic division, you have to admire what these guys have done to fine tune the system we have today, this photo shows, the umbrella we used to keep out police out of the weather, or even just to keep the sun off of them. But what we like best about this pic is the rear-view mirror used to allow our officers the ability to see where traffic is coming from behind him and in front of him, making the direction of these vehicles as safe as possible. Something we don't think about often is what was going on back then when it comes to transportation. this was taken sometime in the late teens early 20s a time when horse-drawn wagons were in use, gasoline engines, some electric cars, streetcars, horses etc. So they had a lot going on, and this man like an orchestra conductor directing a musical performance music, he was directing traffic and if you think of all that could go wrong, especially at a time when traffic lights were not in full use, and in fact, the Semaphore was really just getting started. The add-ons and extras like an umbrella and rear-view mirror show just how far we have come. We thank for the donor for caring about police and our history so much that they would donate an important part of history. 

Go Go Stop Stop rearview and Umbrellacrop

Close-up of the shot above shows a rear-view mirror for the Go-Go Stop-Stop traffic officer. The pic above shoes he also had an umbrella for the sun/rain and stood on a pallet to keep him off the street, he also has a drain not far off to the side of him so the pallet may have had a second purpose 

tdTraffic booth and Officers directing traffic at Liberty and Lexington Streets

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Traffic Lights, Intersections, Vehicles and Pedestrians Lead to Crosswalks

We would have a difficult time introducing the traffic light if we couldn't introduce the crosswalk. Baltimore started using our crosswalk system in 1914, intersections on Baltimore Street from the Fallsway to Howard Street, and on Howard from Baltimore Street to Franklin, would receive these thick white line telling pedestrian where they needed to be when crossing the streets in this part of town. The concept seen in Cleveland and Detroit could be seen first on these downtown streets, but before long they would be on nearly every major intersection in the city. The Goal was to save lives, as more and more cars came into the city and these cars were being made to go faster and faster, those on foot needed to earn to interact with these machines in a uniform, and safe manor.


Baltimore St and Charles St

15 November 1914


VINCENT FITZPATRICK The Sun (1837-1989); SN1

Walk the Straight and Narrow Path

What are those white lines painted on the street, stretching right across the asphalt, mean? Scores asked the men who were painting, hundreds have looked at them, stopped and wondered.

Thousands who walk through the business district of the city have noticed recently at the street intersections of Baltimore Street from the Fallsway to Howard Street, and on Howard from Baltimore Street to Franklin, these heavy white lines on all four sides of the intersecting streets. The lines extend from curb to curb, those on the north and south sides of the street running East and West, and those on the east and west sides of the streets running north and south.

One of the lines on each side runs coincident with the building line; the other with the curb between these lines all Baltimoreans who use Shanks’ mare as their mode of traveling must walk in the future. There is to be no “cutting catty-corner” at these intersections. Everyone must hew to the line or the policemen stationed at these crossings will know the reason why.

In Cleveland and Detroit.

In other words, Baltimore is about to inaugurate an arrangement in the way of handling the traffic situation that has been in vogue for some time in the number of large cities of the country.

Those who have visited Cleveland and Detroit have undergone the experience of being held up by the policeman at the crossing when they attempt to scoot diagonally from one corner of the street to another. They had to go around about way, and perhaps some of them have murmured at what they thought of as a useless and childish procedure. In some of these cities, the lines are not used, while in others there is quite an involved system of lines. Which it takes a little time to puzzle out. In all of these cities the adoption of either the line system or that used, for example, in Cleveland, where the police simply directed the way the Pedestrian shall go, has been rewarded with beneficial results in the saving of life and limb.

In Baltimore, in the last five years, the toll of life and limb exacted by streetcars, automobiles and other vehicles has been considerable. Perhaps 50 persons have been killed or died from their injuries. It is doubtful if, in all this list, there can be found a verdict given by a coroner’s jury in which the victim of the accident was not blamed to some extent for carelessness. In every instance, it seems to have been a case where the person who was killed steps to directly in the path of the automobile or the trolley car, and that the motorman or the chauffeur had no time to bring his car or automobile to a stop.

Often there have been no disinterested witnesses to the accident. The victim’s lips are sealed by death. The person who ran him down naturally testifies in his own defense. With conditions existing as they are in Baltimore today, it is a wonder that more persons are not killed or injured. There are always some few persons so careless and driving automobiles and other vehicles that they are a constant danger to pedestrians. As long as some men will not respect the rights of others and as long as many people are so careless of their own protection, the city must step to the defense of those who either cannot or will not take care of themselves.

The Way It Works

The layout of these lines is regarded as an important step toward the better handling of traffic. City engineer McKay is initiating the innovation. He will shortly write a letter to the board of police commissioners asking them to have the members of the Police Department cooperate with city authorities in seeing that the new plan is carried out.

When that system is put in force a person wishing to cross, say from the south-west side of Baltimore and Charles streets to the northeast corner of Baltimore and Charles streets, will have to walk east on the south side of Baltimore Street to the southeast corner of the intersecting streets and thence North to his objective point. There may be some persons who object on the grounds that this means a waste of time and energy. Doubtless, they will in the future see its good points.

When once the traffic patrolman gives the signal for persons moving east and west to move on every vehicle bound North and South must stop. When he gives the sign to those on their way north and south every vehicle moving east and west must stop every person moving along between the lines is absolutely protected. If, though some disobedience of the law of a driver should persist on his way and a person is cut down between the lines, the party guilty of the violation will have practically no defense and will probably have to face a lawsuit for damages.

The city engineering department intends to place these lines throughout most of the traffic-congested districts. It is the only continuation of the policy of the city officials that “life is not cheap.”

The Useful Traffic Squad

It will surprise some to learn that the money required for the protection of people from injury resulted from the traffic reaches into the thousands and the thousands of dollars more will be expended. Even at that, the safeguards for the pedestrians will not be enough, and those who of studied the question believe that the time is coming when a special yearly appropriation will be made for this purpose.

Until a decade or so ago this city had practically no traffic squad. Indeed when the idea was first breached the proposal met with more or less derision, and those who were appointed to this special work were referred to as members of “the beauty squad.” Baltimoreans have ceased to laugh at that squad. They know the work its members have done in saving aged men and women and children from death in those streets were “big business” and unmindful pleasure hustled and bustle along apparently careless of the rights of others. There are in the city today 39 members of the traffic squad, including three mounted policemen. Of sergeants Barry, and Zimmerman, with deputy Marshal house as the directing head. These men are stationed at all of the principal traffic corners downtown or at what some call the “automobile death traps”. These “traps” are at North and Charles streets, St. Paul and Chase streets and St. Paul Street and Mount Royal Avenue.

These patrolmen work from 7 o’clock in the morning until 7 o’clock at night. One half of the squad works on Saturday night from seven to 11 o’clock. The officers are not kept on duty on Sundays, except the one man who was stationed at Charles Street and North Avenue. This assignment is taken in turn, which means that each member of the squad has to work approximately one Sunday in every 39.

Many Warning Signs

More policeman for this work is needed and needed badly, officials say, but as there is no money appropriated the next best step is taken. Signs have been printed warning automobiles and others what they must do in order to conform to the traffic laws. Signs are fixed at dangerous places where it is impossible, because of lack of numbers, to station a patrolman. The signs cost eight dollars apiece, but they last many years. The patrolman must be paid $20 a week. Therefore, the signs are much more economical, though perhaps not so powerful in the way of restraint as the policeman.

To further the “safety first” Crusade, the officials of the United railways have placed posters in the trolley cars requesting passengers not only to be careful while getting on or off the cars but also warning them of the need of being watchful while crossing or walking in the street.

The automobile club of Marilyn now keeps on the streets and automobile caring large signs on its side warning pedestrians of the necessity of watching out for automobiles and other vehicles. This is sent out the only through the city, the automobile thus constituting a running lesson of advice.

Moving – Picture Lessons

Deputy Marshal House, who is intensely interested in the “safety first” movement, is greatly pleased with the results that have followed one method of campaigning in this matter. There are 200 moving picture houses in Baltimore. In these houses at least once a week warnings tell of the dangers that are to be met within the city from moving vehicles. They urge the readers to “stop, look and listen” before attempting to cross a street. They tell children of the dangers of stealing rides on the back of wagons, cars, etc. And these lessons produce an impression.

The police are always on the lookout to detect those who violate the traffic laws. In stables all over town, the traffic rules are posted. Thousands of little pamphlets, published at the city’s expense, containing the traffic rules and the penalties for violating them have been issued to chauffeurs, automobile owners, and drivers.

In the case of minor violations of the law by drivers of wagons, the rule that is generally followed is to take the name of the driver, if it is his first defense and the name of his employer. The employer is then notified that his employee as disregarded the law and he is asked to advise his men not to repeat the offense. If the offense is committed again the violators arrested and fined.

To “Park” Vehicles

Deputy Marshal House is striving to get the owners of the various business houses and big office buildings interested in a new plan of his. He wants them to purchase signs, to be used in front of their buildings, telling automobile list and drivers to “park” their vehicles within certain lines to be marked off in front of the buildings. This is to keep the entrances to the buildings clear.

There is one good thing that the deputy marshal believes will result from such a plan, and that is the expediting of the collection of the males. Because of the congestion in front of mailboxes, the post office employees have often been delayed a minute or more a box in the taking up of such mail. This means lost time and inconvenience to the businessmen and others in getting their mail.

The popularity of roller-skating brought about by the increase of smooth payments has given a new problem for the police to solve. Regulations had to be made and enforced, giving the children the right to use certain streets at certain hours for their fun. Some of the too – fond skaters had to be protected against automobiles and vice versa automobile us had to be protected against heedless skaters.

May Restore the Whistles

In the downtown section the traffic police for a long time he used the whistle system in the directing of traffic. One blow of the whistle meant the movement of traffic North and South; two blasts met the movement of traffic East and West. This system was discontinued, traffic being direct it now by the waiving of the hand. Part of the present system, according to Deputy Marshal House, has proved unsatisfactory and he has brought before the board of police commissioners a proposal to bring back the whistles again. It is said that many drivers, especially Negroes, who sometimes drive along half asleep, fail to notice the wave of the officer’s hand, and much confusion has resulted. The sharp whistle keeps a man awake and alert and wakes up the sleeping or the stupid.

There are f new traffic problems arising every day as the city grows. It is a big thing, the protection of the people – a job well worth what it costs. Over in Northeast Baltimore and down in the crowded sections of East Baltimore, hundreds of people have been injured more or less seriously, and some have lost their lives because the streets were not better guarded. Especially is where need for the protection of children and elderly persons, and down there, where they have never had any officers to look after pedestrians and hold teams and motorcars in check, traffic police are needed.

It’s a big problem, one that Baltimore has handled pretty well, with its limited force, in the past few years, but it’s planning to manage by a better and more comprehensive system in the future.

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Downtown Traffic Policeman Howard and Lexington 1920 In This Pic, We See The Semaphore Booth with a Green and Red Railroad Lantern Affixed to The Top Just Under the Signs and Lanterns, We Can See The Officer's Umbrella, In This Case, Keeping Him Out of The Hot Sun

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Nice Committee Calls Three Traffic Experts

Three traffic experts will appear before Governor Nice's automobile insurance committee at a meeting to be held at 8 P. M. Tuesday at the Emerson Hotel. They are:

Dr. S. S. Stineberg, Dean of the College of Engineering of the University of Maryland, who is conducting the traffic school there. John P. Rostmeyer, director of the Baltimore Safety Council. Preston D. Callum, chairman of the Baltimore Traffic Committee. The committee was named by the Governor shortly after the first of the Year to make a study of Automobile Insurance in the State and to make Recommendations to him and the next General Assembly.

Members of the committee are:

George W. Baulk, a chairman, and W. Harry Haller, of Frederick, representing

The insurance companies. John T. Shipway, of Flintstone; Jos. Eph S. Bigelow, of Annapolis, and J. Francis Rahlke, of Westminster, representing businessmen. Max Sokol, secretary, and Robert R. Carmen, representing the legal profession. The last Legislature passed a resolution calling for the appointment of the committee.

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1929 traffic system
 Baltimore's New Traffic Engineer


The Sun (1837-1987); Jun 20, 1937; pg. 78

Baltimore’s New Traffic Engineer

 Tomorrow Wallace L. Brown Starts Simplifying the Street Tangle

By Keith Wyatt

Tomorrow morning a new member of the Baltimore Police Department will walk into the police administration building and hang up his hat just long enough to orient himself and map his future course with his superiors and collaborators. Then, armed with the Lance of special training, he will go out to tilt with a formidable foe – Baltimore’s tangle traffic.

Nine months of intensive study with the nation’s best-known traffic experts have given Wallace L Perry of Braun, a former member of the engineering staff of the city’s Bureau of mechanical electrical service, with a degree of the traffic engineer. Sent to Harvard Bureau for street traffic’s research by the sun papers last fall, he has received instruction for men recognized as leaders in his young profession, which is filling a big gap between the civil engineering which builds streets and the police authority that enforces traffic laws on them.

Recently Mr. Braun came home for a few days holiday – a businessman’s holiday, during which most of his time was spent in cruising about the city, sizing up some of the problems he will be called upon to solve and planning some of the recommendations he will make to his superiors out of his store of knowledge.

He entertains no belief that Baltimore’s traffic snarls can be unraveled without some radical changes in the rules governing Streets parking and traffic at certain notoriously bad intersections, in true routes, in stop-go light controls and an accident investigation, and is naturally encouraged by the City Council’s recent steps towards cooperation with the police department.

But eager as he is to try his wings, the traffic engineer – to – appear to be imbued with a sense of caution that may stand him in good stead. Soberly he looks ahead at his new job and as to specific details Admits: “I don’t know just how I shall operate. So much depends on the full cooperation not only the entire police department but other city departments and civic organizations as well. It will take some months to develop a working plan whereby the city can begin to show a profit on the talents that have been given me.”

Nevertheless, Mr. Braun is not wholly lacking in the program. Subject to the approval of his superiors, his first efforts will be toward the organization and the establishment of a liaison between all groups primarily interested in the safe and expeditious movement of traffic. Beyond that, he hopes to apply much of his knowledge to the many conditions that govern traffic behavior. Already holding a degree in electrical engineering (bachelor of engineering, Johns Hopkins, 1926), he has added a full understanding of traffic signals and other control mechanisms. Grounded, too, in civil engineering, he now has gained a wider knowledge of the effects of Street plan, condition and arrangement on traffic movement. In addition to these things, he has assimilated a store of miscellaneous information, mostly hard bought by other cities that have made credible records in their attacks on the traffic problem.

“I would like to dispel any notion that I am coming in here to “run” traffic,” the engineer said, “I have just hired the help of a special sort. The traffic division knows more than I will ever know about the enforcement of traffic laws; the public works department was building streets before I was born. But I have learned a lot about those things that influence the rapid and safe movement of traffic, and I believe I have a lot that both of these departments can use.”

One of Mr. Braun’s earliest endeavors will be to organize an adversary committee composed of both official and civic representatives. He reports that cities that have made some of the best records in traffic have had such boards to advise with the traffic engineer. As he visualizes it, the committee would be made up of a high emissaries of the police, public works and educational departments, ex officio, and of representatives of the Safety Council, automobile clubs, mass transportation systems, taxi and trucking interests, retail merchants Association, and Baltimore Association of Commerce, Commission on city planning, the city solicitor’s office and the real estate board.

“Such a committee would represent the views and experience of every classification of traffic,” the engineer said, “form of four I have watched the progress of the mayor's traffic committee in drafting a program of segregation of rail and freewheel movement.

The committee, headed by Preston D. Callum, of the Safety Council, has served to show what can be accomplished when a big, interested group seeks, and fines, a common line on which to proceed toward worthwhile ends.

“I hear with regret that the Callum committee has asked that it be disbanded. I would like to work with that group, but if it does break up I sure hope that another may be formed on the same sound lines”

A special interest to Mr. Braun is the committee’s study of the “hundred worst intersections” in the city, made some time ago with relief labor. While no specific recommendations were made for correction of dangers at these intersections, the data, Mr. Brown believes, will form the basis for some remedial action, if cross-section studies can be made to bring them up to date.

The engineer hopes that he may embark at once on a broad survey of the city’s traffic and the problems associated with it. From this reconnaissance he believes he can set his own course, looking for sound recommendations for improvement. It is necessary, too, he says, to determine what can be done within the resources of the department, reported being scanty in comparison with cities of similar size.

Mr. Braun is cautious on the timing of traffic signals and their lack of coordination that causes many snarls during busy hours in the city. He points out that the “mixed traffic” of streetcars and freewheel vehicles on every street in the business section makes coordination practically impossible in some places – a condition that will be rectified to some extent as the Streetcar real routing plan of the mayor's traffic committee goes forward.

Under this plan, most of the rail movement will be confined to certain “streetcar streets,” leaving other arteries entirely to freewheel vehicles.

Asked what he would do with so-called “wave systems” one St. Paul Cathedral streets, Mr. Braun said he has had no opportunity to familiarize himself with the mechanism and, therefore, cannot now judge to what further extent it may be adapted to the changing needs of traffic.

“In many cities, the timers are changes so that longer portions of the cycle are devoted to the heaviest traffic at Rush speak,” he explained, “I am in no position yet to say what can be done here. The police have had a difficult problem, and to meet it good equipment is needed. I do not know, of course, was of the city has such equipment.”

What did Mr. Braun sink of new bypasses for through traffic? He shook his head. “I can’t discuss that with you,” he said. “Adequate bypasses to relieve the busier sections of a load of transient traffic are important to any city. I was much interested in reading of the studies of the mayor's committee which, while it has advanced no specific recommendations, at least outlined several possible routes that might be developed, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and province all have exceptionally fine bypasses that are well worth study. Perhaps such routes can be found here; I don’t know.” Well, what about limited ways – those express routes with no cross traffic? The engineer shrugged his shoulders. “Best way in the world to cut congestion and move traffic rapidly out of the business section, but they are expensive,” he declared. “Some cities say they cannot afford them; others that they cannot, in the light of their traffic problem, afford to be without them. For my present distance, I do not see any signs of an aroused public opinion that would bring them to Baltimore. As a matter of fact, I have had no opportunity to even find out whether the city needs them yet, or whether other expedients might do for the time.”

Parking, then? And Mr. Braun any ideas on how to solve this pressing problem of Baltimore’s narrow streets? Again he was wary. “I have no right to talk about that,” he explained. “No city has “solved” is parking problems yet. Speaking generally, traffic engineers look to the day when street parking of automobiles can be abolished; when all Street space can be used for its original purpose – to move traffic. They are convinced that it is poor economy to use expensive paved surfaces for dead storage when other space can be found and that is cheaper, allowing cities, in effect, to broaden their streets by two full lanes. Someday we may come to it, but just now I cannot speak with any authority on Baltimore’s parking problem.”

Mr. Braun conceives the first need of any traffic engineer to be a “good set of traffic eyes” – that is, an efficient set of records. Particularly does he deem accident reporting a necessity in any intelligent approach to street and highway safety?

“If you know where accidents are happening, you can find out what to do about them,” he remarked. “Whether it be an enforcement job, a matter of lighting, the need for signals or signs to be removed or physical hazards, they also up in records properly capped.”

He believes, also, as do most other engineers of his calling, that every city and state should have a special investigation of traffic accidents, just as they have special investigations of other violations of the public safety. He is convinced of that accident investigation squads take the guesswork out of safety efforts, bring law violators to justice and gardeners and people from injustices often sustained to half hazards dealing with accident cases. The moral of fact on the public is good, he thinks, and, besides, such procedures improve records so greatly that the whole problem may be attacked more intelligently.

Before the Baltimore engineer’s eyes are ever the “Three E’s” of traffic movement, control, and safety – Education, Engineering and Enforcement – set up by the traffic engineering fraternity as its guideline. Each is a separate and distinct function, he says, but all three must be correlated to assure a proper approach to safe, sane and rapid traffic.

Mr. Braun was born in Hyattsville 33 years ago and came to Baltimore with his family when he was six. He was educated in the Baltimore public schools, the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute at Johns Hopkins University. After his graduation at Johns Hopkins in 1926 he joined the technical staff of the Consolidated Gas, Electric Light, and Power Company, being assigned to steam stations. In 1929 he resigned to take a position in a Bureau of mechanical electrical service of the city department of public works. He served an adversary and executive capacity on electrical and combustion engine projects of the city until shortly before he was sent to Harvard Bureau.

Last summer, recognizing the need of the city for a highly specialized engineer to handle traffic problems the Sun paper offered to provide a man of police Commissioner Gaither’s choice with a year’s scholarship to the Harvard Bureau for street traffic research. Commissioner Gaither, believed that, because of high educational requirements in the Harvard graduate school, the candidate should be selected from the engineering, rather than the police, staff of the city, conferred with Mayor Jackson and the chief engineer Bernard L. Crozier as the man best suited by former training to undertake the work, the Commissioner Gaither prepared to make room for him in his own department when he should have qualified as a traffic engineer.

With the expiration of general Gaither’s third term of office two weeks ago Commissioner William P. Lawson succeeded. One of his first pledges was of special attention to the city’s traffic needs, which he recognized as large and numerous and urgent. After discussing the project with inspector Atkinson, head of the traffic force, he expressed a lively interest in the coming of Mr. Braun, and confidence that the combination of theory and practice within the Police Department would lead to the great betterment of the city’s traffic conditions in the near future.

Mr. Braun’s final dissertation at Harvard, completed just before the finishing of his euro special training, it is interesting to note, was on “organization of municipal traffic engineering offices.” During the course of his studies, he was given, in addition to a wealth of theoretical training, actual engineering work in the field. He observed, during his studies, traffic engineering technique of cities with best records of traffic deficiency; he with his fellow students, made actual traffic studies in and around Cambridge and Boston, and he accompanied accident investigation squads in the unraveling of cases, aiding in his work himself.

He has studied the traffic engineering methods of Washington, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Milwaukee and Buffalo at first hand. He feels now that his training, under Dr. Miller McClintock, probably the best-known of America’s traffic engineers, and other specialists of the fraternity, has fitted him to undertake his duties here in Baltimore.

Foot Traffic Division, in front of the Headquarters building
October 24, 1940
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Urges Standard Traffic Signals

27 November 1927

Police Commissioner Suggests a System for use in All Cities

Would aid walkers

Gaither favors yellow

At crossings for those on foot

Adoption of a standardized system for automatic traffic control was suggested yesterday by Charles D Gaither, Police Commissioner, in discussing the variation of timing and manner of operation of signals and other cities of the country to regulate the movement of traffic.

“If this plan were adopted, the motorist would soon catch on to the scheme and would get the fullest advantage of driving by the signal,” he said. “They would become so well acquainted with it that when they drove into another city, they would not hold up traffic, as they tend to do now when forced to stop to puzzle over the meaning of the lights.”

Suggest national movement

To bring about the standardization plan, Mr. gator suggests that automobile or traffic associations be formed in all cities and that the groups be represented at a national meeting. New ideas about traffic lights could be exchanged at such meetings, and remedies for defects and signal systems in different cities could be suggested, he pointed out.

“Not that one specified plan should be carried out in every minute detail, but the general principle of a certain plan,” Mr. Gaither explained. “By this, I mean the color of the lights, the timing and the construction of the signals and the way in which it is mounted.”

Disapproves New York plan

Mr. Geiser said he did not believe; there was a city in the United States that was satisfied with the way it signals were operating.

The two light signal in use in New York is not approved by Mr. Gaither. He said he had found that motorists and pedestrians become confused where there is no interval light in the signal.

The New York signals have only the red and green lights, with a five-second interval for traffic to clear up between flashes

Mr. Gaither expressed the hope that a yellow light meaning “go” for pedestrians would be established in Baltimore. He said that as far as he could see, that would be the only possible way to make the crossing at intersections safe for pedestrians.

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Kiosk South Lombard 1

 Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

Kiosk located at South St. and Lombard St. where the old News American Co. was located.

The traffic control device was decommissioned in 1951 when Patrolman Raymond Miles retired.

Ray Miles 6

Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

Patrolman Raymond K. Miles worked in the Traffic Unit for 16 years
Lombard South Sts. 1
Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

 Kiosk located at South St. and Lombard St. where the old News American Co. was located. Note the old Baltimore Streetcar which was headed to City Hall in a snowstorm. This Kiosk was worked for many years by Patrolman Raymond K. Miles.



sem·a·phore [sémm? fàwr] n 1. system of signaling: a system for sending messages using hand-held flags that are moved to represent letters of the alphabet 2. mechanical signaling device: a signaling device for sending information over distances using mechanically operated arms or flags mounted on a post, especially on a railroad Encarta ® World English Dictionary © & (P) 1998-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

City Traffic Kiosk 8 29 1951

Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

 Officer Raymond K. Miles, Sr. worked his post directing traffic from the Kiosk at South and Lombard Sts. The hot muggy Baltimore dog days of summer trying to keep cool proved to be a problem. Patrolman Miles soon learned a way to keep cool. He discovered that taking the leaf from a head of cabbage that had been soaked in ice water, placing it on top of his head and covering it with his hat., Patrolman Miles remained "Kool as a cabbage". This is only one of the many things that Baltimore Policemen soon learned to make their working conditions more bearable.


Photo courtesy Raymond K. Miles Jr.

Actuated Traffic Control Box

Ray Miles plaque

Memorial plaque to Officer Raymond K. Miles, Sr. showing all of his original police equipment, which is kept by his son, Raymond Miles, Jr. as a reminder of his dad's service to the City Of Baltimore and The Baltimore Police Department.

1928 - February 22, 1928, The first vehicle actuated control was tried out in Baltimore. (To the best of our knowledge this was the first vehicle actuated signal insulation in the world.) - This was an automatic control were a brake attachment and two funnels placed on poles on the right-hand side of the cross street, ordinary telephone transmitters being installed inside the funnels. These transmitters being connected to the sound relay, which when disturbed by noise, for example, the tooting of horns, blowing of whistles, or the sound of voices would actuate the sound relay, releasing the break on the automatic control permitting the motor to run. This would change the signal which had been green on the main street to amber, then to read, permitting the side street traffic to move out on the green. It would automatically reset to red. This device was invented here in Baltimore. - This control would always restore itself back to the main street green, then the break would set and the signal would remain green on the main street until disturbed again by sound. Several of this type were installed, one being at Charles Street and Cold Spring Lane, another at Charles and Belvedere Avenue 

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Copies of: Your Baltimore Police Department Class Photo, Pictures of our Officers, Vehicles, Equipment, Newspaper Articles relating to our department and or officers, Old Departmental Newsletters, Lookouts, Wanted Posters, and or Brochures. Information on Deceased Officers and anything that may help Preserve the History and Proud Traditions of this agency. Please contact Retired Detective Kenny Driscoll. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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How to Dispose of Old Police Items

  If you come into possession of Police items from an Estate or Death of a Police Officer Family Member and do not know how to properly dispose of these items please contact: Retired Detective Ken Driscoll - Please dispose of POLICE Items: Badges, Guns, Uniforms, Documents, PROPERLY so they won’t be used IMPROPERLY

Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll



Hat and Helmet History

Tuesday, 04 February 2020 01:39

Baltimore Police Department 
Hat and Helmet History

1784 - Various Bell Hats, Derby Hats, Cowboy Hats etc. were used
1886 -  The Police Helmet, (Bobby Cap) worn in other cities, was made part of the uniform in Baltimore. (It was introduced by Commissioner Alford J. Carr. Taking the place of the derby or bell cap formerly worn by Baltimore police.  Commissioner Carr specified that the black helmet was to be worn in the winter, and the pearl gray helmet worn during summer months.  The helmet at that time was significant of rank, only patrolman and sergeants wore it.  The Marshal and his Deputy Marshal as well as all Captains and Lieutenants wear the regular cap of the period.)
1908 - 7 November 1908 - After 22 years, The Baltimore Police Department stop using the Police Helmet, (Bobby Cap), and goes to a more modern round, or oval top, police hat. From the Baltimore Sun - The Baltimore Police go from the Bobby Type Helmet to the more modern cap and Officers donned new uniforms, veteran Captains returned to old Districts, caps supplant helmets and Espantoons are in use once again. 
1908 - 7 November 1908 - Also on this day and with the hat switch under the direction of Col. Sherlock Swann came a new hat device, it was on this day in 1908 that we dropped the Wreath style hat device moving to the hat device used today with the Coat of arms and badge number.
1935 - The Police Department's Traffic Section including the Mounted Unit were issued Pith Hats a kind of Safari Helmet which was not well liked by many as they seemed to blow off the officer's heads in even the slightest of winds, causing officers to chase more helmets than criminals while the head wear was in use.
1941 - During the year 1941/42 Officers started removing the metal ring from their hats to make them resemble the |Crushed"Caps seen in the military, a trend started, or made popular by General MacArthur HERE
1944 - 7 October 1944 - The Baltimore police switches from the round, or oval top police caps that were worn for a little more than 30 years after the "Bobby Cap" type helmet, to the current "Octagonal" or "Eight point" hats we wear today.

Baldwin Thomas Marshall1

Derby Type Hat

Bobby Helmet

hat 0hat 0Police Helmet
Worn from 1886 - 1908

1908 1944

Round Hat
Worn from 1908 to 1944

1908 1944 2

1941 to 1944
MacArthur Crushed Style

This "Round Hat" had the wire reinforcement ring taken out to give us more of a "Crushed" hat in appearance. The Crushed Hat style came about circa 1941 due to General MacArthur’s Crushed Hat. For more info click HERE

Jay WileyBaltimore Police Eight (8) Point Hat
- Present

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 Pith Hat

Jay Wiley

Baltimore Police Pith Hat
Worn by Traffic and Mounted

1935 BPD Pith hat


In 1935 One of the Many Hats warn by Police both Metaphorically and Physically came the Pith Hat

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Thrsday 13 June 1935 Pith hat pith

Traffic Police Not Happy with the Pith Hat

Wed Jun 12 1935 Pith helmet Pith

The Governor Wears the Police Pith Hat on a Trip

A Pith hat

An old Police Pith Hat

The Evening Sun Mon Feb 4 1935 shorts out piths in

We dodged a bullet, and were not ordered to wear the entire uniform, just the hat 

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Prior to 1886 - Baltimore Police wore "Derby" type hats, "Bell" hats and even what some might say looked like a "Cowboy" hats of sorts. Then in 1886 the police helmet, (Bobby Cap) that was seen in London England and many American cities came to Baltimore where it was made part of the uniform of a Baltimore Police Officer and Sergeant. Introduced by Commissioner Alford J. Carr to take the place of the derby or bell cap worn prior by our officers and Sergeants. The Police helmet was introduced by Commissioner Carr who specified that the black police helmet was to be worn during winter months, and the pearl gray helmet would be worn during summer months.  The helmet at that time was significant of rank in that only patrolman and sergeants wore it.  The Marshal and his Deputy Marshal as well as all Captains and Lieutenants were to wear the regular police cap of the period. 


Sometimes called a bell hat, and more often used by the Fire Department

1886 - The Police Helmet, (London's Bobby Cap) worn in other cities, was made part of the uniform in Baltimore. It was introduced by Commissioner Alford J. Carr. to take the place of the derby, or bell cap formerly worn by Baltimore police.  Commissioner Carr specified that our helmet was to be worn in the color black during winter months, and a pearl gray helmet would be worn during the summer months. The helmet at that time was significant in rank to be worn only by patrolmen and sergeants.  The Marshal and his Deputy Marshal as well as all Captains and Lieutenants were to remain wearing the regular cap of the period.



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1908 - 7 November 1908 - After 22 years, The Baltimore Police Department stop using the Police Helmet, (Bobby Cap), and goes to a more modern round, or oval top, police hat. From the Baltimore Sun - The Baltimore Police go from the Bobby Type Helmet to the more modern cap and Officers donned new uniforms, veteran Captains returned to old Districts, caps supplant helmets and Espantoons are in use once again. 
1908 - 7 November 1908 - Also on this day and with the hat switch under the direction of Col. Sherlock Swann came a new hat device, it was on this day in 1908 that we dropped the Wreath style hat device moving to the hat device used today with the Coat of arms and badge number.

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 Notice the Hat Device has the Wreath on it meaning it was used prior to 1908
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 Notice - The Hat Device has the State flag, Helm and Officer's badge number
A clear sign that this came after 1908 and was take between 1908 and 1944 
Bowen William Officer 1960
 1944 and after

1944 - 7 October 1944 - The Baltimore police switched from the round, or oval top police hat/caps that were worn for a little more than 30 years after the "Bobby Cap" type helmet, to the current "Octagonal" or "Eight point" hat we wear today.

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Civil Defense

Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters. It uses the principles of emergency operations: prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, or emergency evacuation and recovery. Programs of this sort were initially discussed at least as early as the 1920s and were implemented in some countries during the 1930s as the threat of war and aerial bombardment grew. It became widespread after the threat of nuclear weapons was realized.

Since the end of the Cold War, the focus of civil defense has largely shifted from military attack to emergencies and disasters in general. The new concept is described by a number of terms, each of which has its own specific shade of meaning, such as crisis management, emergency management, emergency preparedness, contingency planning, civil contingency, civil aid, and civil protection.

In some countries, civil defense is seen as a key part of "total defense". For example, in Sweden, the Swedish word "totalitarian" refers to the commitment of a wide range of resources of the nation to its defense - including to civil protection. Respectively, some countries (notably the Soviet Union) may have or have had military-organized civil defense units (Civil Defense Troops) as part of their armed forces or as a paramilitary service.

Baltimore's Mayor's Office of Emergency Management

Civil Defense logo emblem chart

Mayor's Office of Emergency Management MOEM evolved from the City’s Civil Defense program, originally established to prepare for the nuclear dangers of the Cold War.

In 2002, under Mayor Martin O’Malley, the office was moved from the Department of Public Works into the Fire Department.

From 2005-2007, Fire Chief William J. Goodwin, Jr. also filled the role of emergency manager for the City.

In 2008, under Mayor Sheila Dixon, the Office of Emergency Management was incorporated into the Mayor’s Office for policy and citywide program coordination purposes. Administratively, the office remains part of the Fire Department.

Today, MOEM works on preparedness and response for a variety of hazards that can occur in Baltimore.

Coastal and flash flooding, severe storms, power outages, blizzards, hazardous materials incidents, bomb threats, and numerous other incidents that require a multi-agency or multi-jurisdictional response, have occurred in the City in the last five years. During these events, MOEM works to coordinate resources and make sure that the affected citizens receive all of the help that the City can access.

Civil Defense WWII

CD nsignia 72

BCP 1940s

Baltimore City Police
WW1 Era US ARMY M1917 Doughboy Helmet

Modified during the 2nd World War by a WD officer this M1917 doughboy helmet was painted black
with B.C.P. painted on front and WD painted inside for use during civil defense or civil protection details

(We don't know the complete back story to this. It would appear from markings on the inside that it may have been used in the WD)


The old U.S. civil defense logo was used in the FEMA logo until 2006 and is hinted at in the United States Civil Air Patrol logo. Created in 1939 by Charles Coiner of the N. W. Ayer Advertising Agency, it was used throughout World War II and the Cold War era. In 2006, the National Emergency Management Association — a U.S. organization made up of state emergency managers—"officially" retired the Civil Defense triangle logo, replacing it with a stylised EM (standing for Emergency management). The name and logo, however, continue to be used by Hawaii State Civil Defense and Guam Homeland Security/Office of Civil Defense


From the air raid warning and plane spotting activities of the Office of Civil Defense in the 1940s, to the Duck and Cover film strips and backyard shelters of the 1950s, to today’s all-hazards preparedness programs led by the Department of Homeland Security, Federal strategies to enhance the nation’s preparedness for disaster and attack have evolved over the course of the 20th century and into the 21st.

Presidential administrations can have a powerful impact on both national and citizen preparedness. By recommending funding levels, creating new policies, and implementing new programs; successive administrations have adapted preparedness efforts to align with changing domestic priorities and foreign policy goals. They have also instituted administrative reorganizations that reflected their preference for consolidated or dispersed civil defense and homeland security responsibilities within the Federal government.

Programs were seldom able to get ahead of world events, and were ultimately challenged in their ability to answer the public’s need for protection from threats due to bureaucratic turbulence created by frequent reorganization, shifting funding priorities, and varying levels of support by senior policymakers. This in turn has had an effect on the public’s perception of national preparedness. Public awareness and support have waxed and waned over the years, as the government’s emphasis on national preparedness has shifted.

An analysis of the history of civil defense and homeland security programs in the United States clearly indicates that to be considered successful, national preparedness programs must be long in their reach yet cost effective. They must also be appropriately tailored to the Nation’s diverse communities, be carefully planned, capable of quickly providing pertinent information to the populace about imminent threats, and able to convey risk without creating unnecessary alarm.

The following narrative identifies some of the key trends, drivers of change, and lessons learned in the history of U.S. national preparedness programs. A review of the history of these programs will assist the Federal government in its efforts to develop and implement effective homeland security policy and better understand previous national preparedness initiatives.

Pre-Cold War Period (1917-1945)

World War I introduced a new type of attack: the use of strategic aerial strikes against an enemy’s population to degrade its ability and will to wage war. German aerial bombardment of towns in countries such as France, Belgium, and Poland began in August 1914, and in the following year Kaiser Wilhelm authorized sustained bombing campaigns against military and civilian targets, particularly against England.1 From May through October of 1915, Germany launched seven air strikes against London alone.2 England, like most other nations at the time, did not have an organized civil defense program to aid citizens during such attacks. Individuals were forced to find their own way to safety, often taking refuge in the city’s underground subway stations.3 By all assessments, the damage and casualty figures that resulted from these early bombing operations were comparatively insignificant, but they exerted a psychological toll on the British public.4 It became clear that civilian defense, involving a range of actions to protect the general public in the event of attack, would become a major fixture in future warfare.

Though the Axis and Allied powers continued to employ strategic bombing throughout World War I, leaders in the United States did not feel that the country was vulnerable to attack. They concentrated their public outreach on rallying support for the war effort.5 Much of this task was coordinated by the Council of National Defense, established on August 29, 1916 with the passage of an Army appropriations bill.6 The Council was a presidential advisory board that included the Secretaries of War, Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor; assisted by an Advisory Committee appointed by the President.7 Its responsibilities included “coordinating resources and industries for national defense” and “stimulating civilian morale.”

The work of the Council escalated when the United States entered the war in 1917. In the same year, the Federal government asked State governors to create their own local councils of defense to support the National effort.9 However, the Council’s activities continued to focus more on facilitating mobilization for the war than on protecting civilian resources. When hostilities ended, the Council shifted its efforts toward demobilization. Its operations were suspended in June, 1921.

For the remainder of the 1920s, the Federal government undertook little public outreach related to defense and security. However, the 1930s saw a revival of civil defense efforts, when aggressive actions and arms stockpiling in Europe fueled international concern.11 In 1933, President Franklin Roosevelt created by executive order the National Emergency Council (NEC) which consisted of the President, his Cabinet members, and the head of nearly every major Federal agency, commission, and board.12 The mission of the NEC included a variety of programs unrelated to civil defense; however, its duties also included coordination of emergency programs among all agencies involved in national preparedness.

As World War II ignited in Europe, Roosevelt reestablished the Council of National Defense in 1940.14 Once again States were asked to establish local counterpart councils. Tensions among Federal, State and local governments began to rise about authority and resources.

The states claimed they were not given enough power to manage civil defense tasks in their own jurisdictions, and local governments asserted that State governments did not give urban areas proper consideration and resources.15 Non-attack disaster preparedness remained almost entirely the responsibility of States, while federal funding was reserved primarily for attack preparedness.

Because of extensive civilian bombing campaigns in Europe, concerns about possible attacks against the U.S. homeland increased. Mayor Fiorello La Guardia of New York City wrote a letter to President Roosevelt stating:

“There is a need for a strong Federal Department to coordinate activities, and not only to coordinate but to initiate and get things going. Please bear in mind that up to this war and never in our history, has the civilian population been exposed to attack. The new technique of war has created the necessity for developing new techniques of civilian defense”

President Roosevelt responded to the increasing concern of the public and local officials by creating the Office of Civilian Defense (OCD) in 1941.17 The President delegated a number of responsibilities to the OCD by broadly interpreting civilian protection to include morale maintenance, promotion of volunteer involvement, and nutrition and physical education.18 The OCD oversaw unprecedented federal involvement in attack preparedness. As with the Council of National Defense, the OCD created corresponding defense councils at the local level.

The issue of whether the OCD should emphasize protective services, typically done at that time by men, or social welfare services, typically undertaken at that time by women, created tension from the office’s inception.20 Director Fiorello LaGuardia referred to “non protective” activities as “sissy stuff” and saw opportunities to build neighborhood militias. Pressured to focus on other non protected areas such as neighborhood support, he appointed Eleanor Roosevelt to expand volunteer activities.21 The two leaders, with their radically divergent points of view, exemplified a conflict over the meaning and purpose of civil defense that would continue well into the cold war era.

OCD received criticism from Congress and the public on several fronts. It was called “pink” by influential politicians who disliked the program’s broad reach and social development programs. Some believed the organization’s tasks were better undertaken by the Department of War.22 One of OCD’s early leaders, James Landis, recommended that the organization be abolished, since the threat of an attack on U.S. civilians had receded.2

With the end of World War II, most U.S. officials agreed that the risk of an attack on the U.S. homeland was minimal. Roosevelt did not take Landis’ suggestion, and the OCD continued to operate.24 While the OCD did not fulfill all of its ambitious goals, it did begin the development of concrete civil defense plans, including air raid drills, black outs, and sand bag stockpiling

Truman Administration (1945-1953)

Soon after taking office, Harry Truman did follow Landis’ advice and abolished the OCD, reflecting the widely held belief that the immediate threat of war had receded. 26 Initially, civil defense was not a high priority in the Truman Administration, as troops began to return home and other war time offices were diminished in scale or disbanded altogether. The development of the atomic bomb, however, had opened up previously unthinkable risks. Increasing hostilities with the Soviet Union and their pursuit of a nuclear bomb threatened the United States.

In this context, Truman began to reexamine the national defense structure, reviewing the results of a set of commissions.27 In 1946, the U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey published its report evaluating the results of strategic bombing campaigns by imperial Germany and Japan against enemy civilian populations. The report indicated that civil defense plans could significantly mitigate the effects of strategic bombing.28 Specifically, mass evacuation plans for urban areas and shelters for those unable to leave the area could form components of a viable civil defense plan.29 In 1947, the War Department’s Civil Defense Board, led by Major General Harold Bull, released a second report.30 The so-called Bull Report stated that civil defense is the responsibility of civilians, and the military should not be expected to get involved in such matters.31 According to the report, civil defense was best implemented locally, a concept referred to as “self-help”. Still, the document did concede that the Federal government could provide the majority of necessary resources.32 Additionally, Congress passed the National Security Act of 1947. Best known for the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Act also created the National Security Resources Board (NSRB), which was initially responsible for mobilizing civilian and military support, as well as maintaining adequate reserves and effective resource use in the event of war.

Neither report resulted in substantial reforms to the Truman Administration’s policies because civil defense continued to remain a low priority. 34 However, as U.S.-Soviet relations became increasingly strained, President Truman began to implement civil defense policy reforms. These changes resulted, in part, from the strong recommendation of Colonel Burnet Beers, who was responsible for directing a study on future civil defense planning and operations to establish a civil defense unit in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD).35 Truman acted promptly on this advice, establishing the Office of Civil Defense Planning (OCDP), whose purpose was to recommend a course for the creation of a permanent civil defense agency. 36 After six months, the OCDP released its 300-page Hopley Report, 37 which called for the creation of a Federal office of civil defense directly under the President or Secretary of Defense. The report additionally recommended that the Federal government provide civil defense guidance and assistance, but that State and local governments handle most of the operational responsibilities.

Reactions to the Hopley Report inside and outside government were generally negative. There were concerns about the cost and scope of civil defense. Many people feared its recommendations were too far-reaching and made unrealistic demands on the public and government.39 And there were concerns about military control. Some civilian groups thought the report called for transferring what should be a civilian responsibility to the military, which could lead to a “garrison state.”

Truman ultimately chose to address the latter concern by assigning civil defense planning to the NSRB, a civilian agency.41 However, the NSRB did not receive the necessary resources or authority to carry out its mandate.42 As a result, the Board was moved to the Department of Defense (DOD), then shifted to the Executive Office of the President, and finally had its responsibilities transferred to the Office of Defense Mobilization in December of 1950.

The climate of civil defense changed dramatically with the successful Soviet test of a nuclear weapon in August of 1949. The United States lost its monopoly on nuclear weapons and the corresponding negotiating power that this entailed. Local officials began to demand from the Federal government a clear outline of what they were to do in crisis situations.43 The Truman Administration received criticism from local officials, a worried American public, and Congress for not taking firm action.44 In response, in 1950, the NSRB generated a new proposal called the Blue Book, which outlined a set of civil defense functions and how they should be implemented at each level of government.45 The Blue Book also recommended the creation of an independent Federal civil defense organization.

Truman agreed with many of the Blue Book recommendations, but held firm to his belief that civil defense responsibilities should fall mostly on the shoulders of the State and local governments.47 In response, Congress enacted the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, which placed most of the civil defense burden on the States and created the Federal Civil Defense Administration (FCDA) to formulate national policy to guide the States’ efforts.

As planning began, policymakers struggled to define what was meant by national security. A key question was the appropriate level of readiness to be attained. At what readiness level would people have to surrender personal freedoms to state control? At what level of security would civil defense metamorphose into a garrison state, undermining the underlying purpose of protecting individual rights?49 The decision to assign civil defense responsibility to States and localities was intended partly as a safeguard against the garrison state.

Planners also struggled with a difficult political question: just how much support should government provide? Congressional resistance to paying for a comprehensive program, and concerns about establishing public dependency on government, led to adoption of a doctrine of “self help”: individual responsibility for preparedness to minimize (not eliminate) risk.50 The idea of decentralized, locally controlled, volunteer based civil defense was not new; in fact it was the foundation of the successful British civil defense effort in World War II. However, the decision to make self-help the basis of civil defense was also a political compromise, a way to balance conflicting views over the size, power, and priorities of the emerging postwar nation.

The FCDA led shelter building programs, sought to improve Federal and State coordination, established an attack warning system, stockpiled supplies, and started a well known national civic education campaign. In 1952, the FCDA joined with the Ad Council to release Korean War advertising to boost national morale.52 The FCDA specifically aimed to teach schoolchildren about preparedness, primarily through civil defense drills.53 In order to effectively educate the entire youth population, the FCDA commissioned a movie studio to produce nine civil defense movies that would be shown in classrooms across the nation – among them Duck and Cover.54 The movie, through its main character Bert the Turtle, showed children what to do when they saw “the flash of an atomic bomb.”55 Newspapers and experts generally heralded the film as a positive and optimistic step toward preparedness.56 The New York Herald Tribune, for example, called the film “very instructive” and “not too frightening for children.”57 Ultimately, the film was seen by millions of schoolchildren during the 1950s.58 The public education campaign throughout the decade promoted the idea that with preparation, a nuclear attack could be survivable

An examination of the FCDA-led shelter building initiative underscores some of the civil defense program’s internal inconsistencies. The Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 allocated significant funding to a shelter initiative. The law allowed the FCDA to develop shelter designs and make financial contributions to shelter programs. However, Congress stipulated that the Federal government could not finance the construction of new shelters.60 In communities across the country there was great debate over the necessity of the shelters, and Truman himself was not eager to spend government money on the program.61 Moreover, FCDA Administrator Millard Caldwell initiated a public relations fiasco when he misconstrued the shelter program as a means to protect every person in the country. A program that expansive was deemed to be too costly to receive sufficient political support; as a result, it never left the planning stages during the Truman Administration. Contrary to the outlook offered by Duck and Cover and the other educational campaigns, early media reports about the possibility of nuclear war offered grim predictions concerning the aftermath of an attack. The scenarios were horrific, and the association of civil defense with death and destruction made not only home preparedness and sheltering, but the whole self-help preparedness concept, a tough sell.

The political, fiscal, and emotional crosscurrents were reflected in civil defense funding. Despite ambitious funding requests, actual appropriations to civil defense remained low throughout the Truman Administration, and throughout the 1950s. For example, from 1951 to 1953 Truman requested $1.5 billion for civil defense, but appropriations totaled only $153 million – 90 percent less than requested 6

Despite these practical setbacks, the concept of civil defense as a purposeful approach to the protection of citizens from threats outside the Nation’s borders began to take shape during Truman’s presidency.65 Though each leader who followed would focus on different programs and approaches, civil defense remained an important initiative during the coming decades

Eisenhower Administration (1953- 1961)

President Dwight Eisenhower’s approach to civil defense was quite different from his predecessor’s. Eisenhower identified the enormous economic commitment required for military development as one reason not to undertake expensive civil defense programs.66 Additionally, Republicans in Congress were eager to curtail spending, as the party had publicly promised to balance the budget when Eisenhower took office.67 Though Eisenhower requested less funding than Truman, actual appropriations were virtually identical to appropriations under Truman

In addition to economic concerns, world events contributed to Eisenhower’s decision to support a mass evacuation policy, instead of the shelter program initiated under Truman. In 1953, the Soviets detonated a hydrogen nuclear bomb; and shortly thereafter, the effects of the initial U.S. hydrogen explosion were released to the American public.69 The blast and thermal effects of these new fusion nuclear weapons were so destructive that many experts argued that American cities would be doomed in the event of a nuclear attack, regardless of sheltering efforts.70 As a result, new FCDA Administrator Frederick Peterson urged Congress to scale back or completely eliminate the shelter program

In strongly supporting mass evacuation, Peterson noted that successful execution would depend on sufficient warning time, proper training for civil defense officials, and regular public drills.72 Many of the responsibilities for evacuation would be borne at the State and local level, which appealed to Eisenhower’s belief that the Federal government should not shoulder the entire burden for civil defense programs.73 Congress also was in favor of the shift in attention from shelters to evacuation.74 Yet some members, especially Congressman Chet Holifield of California, were adamantly opposed to reducing the shelter system.75 Holifield was the ranking member of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy and later the chairman of the Military Operations Subcommittee.76 In support of a federally funded shelter system, he likened the idea of family built shelters to creating “an army or a navy or an air force by advising each one to buy himself a jet plane.”77 As a well publicized champion for shelter building, Congressman Holifield consistently and persuasively articulated the benefits of shelter building to the American public.

In March of 1954, the United States detonated another thermonuclear bomb, called Bravo, on Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands.78 Due to a major wind shift, a large amount of radioactive fallout was unexpectedly released over a 7000 square mile area, ultimately poisoning the crew of a Japanese fishing boat in the area and even injuring personnel involved in the test.79 It did not take long for Congress and the public to turn their attention to the need for shelters to protect the citizenry from such lethal effects.80 The FCDA was in a tough position. They had just fought for evacuation policies, at the expense of the shelter option, and the Eisenhower Administration continued to support evacuation as the chief civil defense objective.81 Faced with this dilemma, FCDA Administrator Peterson redirected his policy toward an “evacuation to shelter” approach, whereby individuals would be evacuated from affected areas to shelters.82 He even proposed digging ditches along roadsides for those who could not get to shelters in time.

The Eisenhower Administration had just begun work on its massive federal highway program, connecting major cities and in the process providing a means for evacuation.84 Peterson clashed with the President on the program, arguing that Congress should divert some of the highway funding to support civil defense programs. He believed that the highways should be designed to lead only 30 to 40 miles outside of major cities to rural “reception areas.”85 However, Peterson’s clout did not match the President’s, and thus no money was diverted from the highway program The FCDA received extensive criticism over the next few years for not developing a feasible plan for evacuating major cities.87 Congressman Holifield called FCDA efforts only a façade of civil defense programs.88 He also chastised the President for not taking more responsibility.89 At Holifield’s request, in 1956 the House Committee on Government Operations held a series of hearings to discuss the viability of the FCDA.90 The “Holifield Hearings” constituted the largest examination of the civil defense program in U.S. history

Holifield and his Committee concluded that the FCDA had been myopically focused on evacuation, which they termed “a cheap substitute for atomic shelter.”92 The FCDA responded by presenting a National Shelter Policy, which proposed a $32 billion program for “federally subsidized self-help” (e.g. tax incentives or special mortgage rates to shelter owning families).93 Taken aback by the cost of the proposal, Eisenhower convened the Gaither Committee (named for its first chairman, H. Rowan Gaither) composed of leading scientific, military, and business experts. The committee evaluated military readiness and concluded that the United States could not defend itself from a Soviet surprise attack on the homeland. 94 While its report, released in 1957, emphasized funding anti-ballistic missile (ABM) defense systems, it also acknowledged that a fallout shelter system occupied a secondary position in deterrence, and to that end recommended adopting the FCDA shelter proposal.95 Two subsequent reports advanced similar ideas.96 In 1958, the Rockefeller Report, compiled by a board of experts and practitioners directed by Henry Kissinger, stated that civil defense was one aspect of a robust deterrent that should also include more investment in offensive military capabilities.97 That same year, a report published by the RAND Corporation emphasized the importance of civil defense as a powerful component of deterrence. 

Despite these supporting reports, the FCDA shelter proposal continued to run counter to the views of top officials in the Eisenhower Administration. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles argued that the nation should focus resources on retaliation capabilities and curtail the shelter program.99 Military leaders also opposed the shelter program, fearing it would cut into defense spending.100 Eisenhower himself remained opposed to the massive shelter program.101 Instead of pursuing the National Shelter Policy, he instructed the FCDA to initiate much more limited actions, including research on fallout shelters, a survey of existing structures, and informing the public about shelters. 

Holifield and other legislators were outraged that the President would disregard the findings of three separate committees.103 Supporters of the shelter system publicly expressed disappointment with the Eisenhower administration, and Holifield commented that civil defense was in a “deplorable” state during this period.104 Finally, in the face of strong criticism, Eisenhower largely dissolved the FCDA to make way for the short-lived Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (OCDM), which began the bulk of its work during the Kennedy presidency 

It bears noting that for all of his public opposition to massive sheltering programs, in the middle of his tenure Eisenhower secretly commissioned the building of an underground bunker in West Virginia that would serve as a safe haven for top members of Congress, in the event of a catastrophe.106 The project was similar in scope and intent to one initiated by President Truman in 1951. Called “Site R,” that effort involved construction of an Alternate Joint Communications Center in Raven Rock Mountain, Pennsylvania, to be used in case existing centers in Washington, DC were destroyed by an attack.107 Like his predecessor, Eisenhower believed it was vital for the government to ensure continuity of operations following an attack on the homeland. The West Virginia bunker was built under the five-star Greenbrier resort and was only placed on full alert once, during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.108 The public remained completely unaware of the operation until 1992 when the Washington Post broke the story.

Kennedy Administration (1961-1963) During the first year of his presidency, John F. Kennedy made civil defense more of a priority than at any previous time in U.S. history.110 He was also the first President to discuss civil defense publicly, issuing an appeal in the September 7, 1961 issue of LIFE magazine to all Americans to protect themselves “and in doing so strengthen [the] nation.”111 Kennedy continued the approach of his predecessors of including civil defense in deterrence calculations, and he believed that the only effective deterrent was a strong retaliatory capability. 112 However, he also believed that deterrence could fail in the event one faced an irrational enemy, and thus a strong and coordinated approach to civil defense was required. As he stated to Congress on May 25, 1961

[Civil defense] can be readily justifiable…as insurance for the civilian population in case of an enemy miscalculation. It is insurance we trust will never be needed – but insurance which we could never forgive ourselves for foregoing in the event of catastrophe.

He concluded by proposing “a nationwide long-range program of identifying present fallout shelter capacity and providing shelter in new and existing structures.”

To accomplish these goals, Kennedy issued Executive Order 10952 on July 20, 1961, which divided the Office of Civil Defense and Mobilization into two new organizations: the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP) and the Office of Civil Defense. OEP was part of the President’s Executive Office and tasked with advising and assisting the President in determining policy for all nonmilitary emergency preparedness, including civil defense. OCD was part of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and was tasked with overseeing the nation’s civil defense program. The responsibility for carrying out the fallout shelter program was among the program operations assigned to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.

The 1961 Berlin crisis gave Kennedy renewed urgency to improve US civil defense. The President emphasized the importance of fallout shelters as a means to save lives.

He stressed that identifying and stocking existing shelters with food and medicine should be made a priority.117 McNamara explained that this approach was not a major departure from the Eisenhower shelter program; however, the scope was larger and thus required more money.118 The goal was to provide maximum protection through cost effective means by utilizing existing buildings. Some members of Congress, notably the ranking Republican of the House Appropriations Committee, John Taber, worked hard to limit funding to the shelter project. However, most underscored the importance of the shelter program as a rational response to the growing threat of a nuclear attack.119 Congress ultimately approved more than $200 million that Kennedy asked for the project, which was twice as much as Eisenhower had ever requested for civil defense.

With the appropriated funds, OCD began a nationwide survey of all existing shelters.121 In order to be designated a public shelter, a facility had to have enough space for at least 50 people, include one cubic foot of storage space per person, and have a radiation protection factor of at least 100.122 The materials division of DOD, called the Defense Supply Agency, furnished shelter supplies to local governments, which were then responsible for stocking all shelters in their regions.123 By 1963, 104 million individual shelter spaces had been identified;124 and of those 47 million had been licensed, 46 million marked, and 9 million individual spaces had been stocked with supplies. 

The President also decided to distribute booklets to the populace that would outline the purpose of the shelter program and the steps that every American should take during an attack. The booklet, created by a team of Madison Avenue writers, was to be sent to every household in the nation.126 In an unintended twist, the booklets themselves created new controversy. Some presidential aides felt that the pictures used were too graphic, while others felt that they indicated the booklet was meant only for the upper class.127 Ultimately the Kennedy Administration decided to tone down the content, so as not to cause unnecessary alarm.128 The booklets were then sent to post offices throughout the nation, so people could pick up copies. 

The means of communicating the Administration’s civil defense message to the public was not the only target of controversy during this time. Reviving a long-standing debate, some prominent members of Congress, including Albert Thomas, the Chairman of the House Appropriations Subcommittee in charge of civil defense, felt that the Federal government should not be undertaking such a massive sheltering project when civil defense responsibility belonged to State and local governments.129 Kennedy convened a meeting with eighteen of his top advisors at Hyannis Port, Massachusetts, on the day after Thanksgiving in 1961 to discuss the appropriate next steps for civil defense.130 There, consensus evolved that the Federal government’s primary role was to provide community shelters.

Johnson Administration (1963-1969) Kennedy’s assassination in November 1963 marked the beginning of a drastic cutback in funding of the Nation’s civil defense program. The topic began to fall slowly off the public radar, and President Lyndon B. Johnson allowed it to slip further by not pressuring Congress to pass the Shelter Incentive Program bill,132 which proposed to give every non-profit institution financial compensation for each shelter it built.

Earlier in the decade, Secretary McNamara had begun to describe the concept of “mutual assured destruction” (MAD), which essentially meant that the Soviet Union and the United States had the capacity to effectively annihilate one another with the weapons in their arsenals, such that this constituted an effective deterrent to offensive action.134 Congress and the public began to accept the doctrine of MAD. As a result, a growing percentage of the population began to wonder if civil defense programs could adequately protect citizens from a large scale nuclear attack.135 However, when the U.S. military began expanding its ABM defense system, McNamara re-emphasized the importance of a shelter system because he questioned the wisdom of relying solely on an ABM defense.136 He argued that “the effectiveness of an ABM defense system in saving lives depends in large part upon the availability of adequate fallout shelters for the population.”137 The belief was that the ABM defense system could be beaten by detonating nuclear weapons upwind of large metropolitan areas and outside the range of the defensive missiles. The result would be radioactive fallout spreading across America’s cities.138 Large numbers of people would die from the exposure to the fallout, unless there were a sufficient number of shelters. Congress opposed financing a shelter system, and McNamara continued to be pessimistic about an ABM defense system saying, “Whether we will ever be able to advance the art of defense as rapidly as the art of offensive developments…I don’t know. At the moment it doesn’t look at all likely.”

In an ironic twist, attention to civil defense was also undermined by a series of major natural disasters that rattled the Nation. Hurricanes Hilda and Betsy devastated the Southeast, an Alaskan earthquake caused a damaging tidal wave in California, and a lethal tornado swept through Indiana on Palm Sunday in 1965.140 Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana sponsored legislation that granted emergency Federal loan assistance to disaster victims.141 The bill passed in 1966, and Bayh urged Congress over the next few years to provide even more disaster assistance to citizens. The concept of all-hazards assistance was gaining adherents, at the expense of civil preparedness for attack.

The Vietnam War struck a further blow to civil defense during the Johnson years. As the war progressed, it required increasing amounts of time, money, and resources.143 Although civil defense efforts continued to receive modest funding, and would for the next twelve years, no major steps were taken to enhance overall capabilities.144 A transformation in the way the Federal government viewed the task of protecting the public had begun.

Nixon Administration (1969-1974)

By the time President Nixon entered office, public and government interest in civil defense had fallen precipitously from its peak in the early 1960s. According to the New York Times Index, in 1968, only four articles on civil defense appeared in that publication compared to 72 in 1963.145 However, the new administration did make a major contribution to civil defense by redefining civil defense policy to include preparedness for natural disasters. In no small measure, the President’s thinking resulted from the Federal government’s lack of preparedness to handle the horrific damage wrought by Hurricane Camille (see discussion below). Upon entering office, Nixon immediately tasked the OEP to complete a broad review of the Nation’s civil defense programs.

In June 1970, the OEP released the results of its comprehensive assessment in National Security Study Memorandum 57. 147 The study concluded that the Nation’s preparedness for natural disasters was minimal to nonexistent.148 The Administration responded by introducing two of its most significant domestic policy changes in National Security Decision Memorandum (NSDM) 184. NSDM 184 recommended the establishment of a “dual-use approach” to Federal citizen preparedness programs and the replacement of the Office of Civil Defense with the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA).149 President Nixon would later implement these recommendations, placing the new DCPA under the umbrella of the Department of Defense.

For the first time in the history of civil defense, Federal funds previously allocated for the exclusive purpose of preparing for military attacks could be shared with State and local governments for natural disaster preparedness. This dual-use initiative subscribed to the philosophy that preparations for evacuation, communications, and survival are common to both natural disasters and enemy military strikes on the homeland. From a practical perspective, the dual-use approach allowed more efficient utilization of limited resources, so planners could address a larger number of scenarios. 150 Given that civil defense funding during Nixon’s first term barely exceeded the low $80 million per year level of the Eisenhower Administration (when adjusted for inflation), scarce resources likely played a part in the decision to adopt the new approach.

A series of natural disasters during Nixon’s tenure also increased the pressure to expand civil defense to include preparation and response to natural disasters. Several major hurricanes and earthquakes exposed significant flaws in natural disaster preparedness at a time when no centralized system for disaster relief existed.152 Perhaps most significantly, in August 1969 Hurricane Camille wreaked havoc in the greater Gulf Coast region, highlighting major problems with disaster response.153 In response, Congress passed the Disaster Relief Act of 1969, which created the concept of a Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO). The FCO was an individual appointed by the President, who would manage federal disaster assistance onthe-spot at a given disaster area The President’s decision to increase focus on natural disaster preparedness also aligned with U.S. foreign policy considerations. In order to reinforce the doctrine of MAD, Nixon was deeply involved in negotiations with the Soviet Union to limit defensive weapon capabilities. 155 The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks treaty (SALT I), signed on May 26, 1972, froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers and allowed the addition of new submarine ballistic missile launchers only as replacements for dismantled older launchers. 156 Perhaps most significantly, SALT I limited the superpowers to only two ABM defense deployment sites. 157 Advocates of SALT argued that such agreements were necessary because any increase in defense capabilities would spur another arms race for improved offensive capabilities. 158 The Nixon Administration felt that the SALT I advances would be jeopardized if either side continued to build up nuclear attack-related civil defense programs. This concern helped justify the decision to turn more attention toward civil preparedness for natural disasters.

The dual use approach was attractive to State and local authorities. While in the past State and local officials had been reluctant to participate in nuclear attack planning, the ability to deal with attack preparedness in the context of a particular hazard in a specific area (e.g. floods in coastal or riverine areas, hurricanes in coastal areas, tornadoes in the Midwest and Plains States, and civil unrest in urban areas) encouraged new coordination and participation

The change of focus also garnered public support. The interest of the American public in attack planning had waned considerably. There was little enthusiasm for ambitious shelter building projects or evacuation drills.161 A number of historians attribute this lack of interest to a diminished perception of risk, psychological numbing to the destruction of nuclear weapons, and a growing belief that civil defense measures would not ultimately be effective in the event of nuclear war.162 Planning for natural disasters was perceived to be more effective, less resource intensive, and able to deliver tangible benefits at the State and local level.

Nixon’s broad policy changes were accompanied by equally sweeping organizational changes. Following the replacement of the OCD with the DCPA, another major reorganization took place. In 1970 and 1973, Reorganization Plans 1 and 2 abolished the Office of Emergency Planning and delegated its functions to various agencies.163 Executive Order 11725 of 1973 solidified the new organizational structure by distributing preparedness tasks to a wide variety of new agencies including the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the General Services Administration, and the Departments of the Treasury and Commerce.164 In total, the new bureaucratic structure placed responsibility for disaster relief with more than 100 federal agencies.165 Not surprisingly, this reorganization is perhaps best known for its ineffectiveness.

Despite the suggestion of great activity, real progress on civil defense, both in the traditional sense and its new dual-use direction, was limited during the Nixon Administration. One illustrative example is the signing into law of the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-288). While the Disaster Relief Act sought to remedy bureaucratic inefficiencies and provide direct assistance to individuals and families following a disaster,167 funding remained low, with levels comparable to spending in the pre Kennedy years. The Act did succeed in involving State and local governments in all hazards preparedness activities 168 and provided matching funds for their programs.169 However, soon the federal government’s emphasis on all-hazards preparedness would lessen.

Ford Administration (1974-1977)

At first, the Ford Administration supported its predecessor’s approach to dual-use preparedness. In March 1975 President Ford strongly endorsed the policy, stating: “I am particularly pleased that civil defense planning today emphasizes the dual use of resources…we are improving our ability to respond…to national disasters…”170 However, less than a year later, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) rescinded DOD’s use of civil defense funding for natural disaster mitigation and preparedness.171 Civil defense was returned to the original orientation of nuclear attack preparedness, as seen during the Truman and Eisenhower years.

There were several motivations for this policy change. Perhaps most importantly, the United States had just resumed its intelligence observations of Soviet civil defense after a five year break.172 Reports from these operations detailed significant Soviet progress in civil defense, compared to relatively small U.S. efforts. Massive Soviet expenditures (estimated at $1 billion per year in 1977) on preparedness initiatives, such as evacuation plans, contributed to a growing concern that the United States was falling behind.173 Whereas in the United States, civil defense was considered “an insurance policy,” the Soviets considered it a “factor of great strategic significance.”174 The most alarmist American commentators concluded that the entire U.S. nuclear arsenal could not inflict significant damage on the Soviet Union, due in large part to its increased civil preparedness.

Developments in Cold War diplomacy likely also contributed to the temporary end of all hazards planning. Gradually the doctrine of MAD was replaced with new ideas, such as limited nuclear strikes against strategically important military and industrial targets,

rather than population centers. As early as January 10, 1974 Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger stated during a press conference that “the old policy [of MAD]…was no longer adequate for deterrence” and should be replaced by “a set of selective options against different sets of targets.”176 Over the next decade, these ideas of flexible targeting and limited retaliation developed into the policy of “flexible response.”177 Flexible response was based on the idea that both the Soviet Union and the United States had the capability for small-scale nuclear attacks that could be answered by similarly-sized acts of retaliation by the other side.178 Theoretically, instead of massive retaliation against population centers, targets would be specific, highly-strategic sites.179 Since some of these sites could be civilian in nature, some level of civil defense and nuclear attack preparedness was deemed necessary. Thus, U.S. policy makers renewed their attention on civil defense, as a means of protecting against targeted highly-strategic attacks.

One result was a new initiative called the Crisis Relocation Plan (CRP). Begun in 1974 by Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger, the CRP favored a strategy of evacuation rather than sheltering. Directed by the DCPA, CRP evacuation planning was conducted at the State level with Federal funds and encompassed all of the necessary  support for relocation, food distribution, and medical care.181 Under the CRP, urban residents would be relocated to rural host counties, with a target ratio of “5 immigrants for every native.”182 The focus on preparedness through the CRP was continued throughout the Ford Administration by incoming Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, who strongly opposed the dual-use approach. Rumsfeld believed that the Federal government should address only attack preparedness, while peacetime disasters were a State and local responsibility.

Though Administration officials and policymakers defended the CRP as a set of simple and highly effective procedures, the program suffered widespread criticism.184 The Plan’s reliance on a relatively long warning time (1 to 2 days), compared to the shorter notice necessary for sheltering, meant it could only be effective in a situation of rising tensions in which the launch of missiles against the country could be predicted. Additionally, vocal critics from Congress and the public doubted the feasibility of such large-scale evacuations through bottlenecked transportation routes.

Organizationally, the fragmentation of civil defense responsibilities begun under Nixon became increasingly apparent. Nixon’s reorganization plans prescribed that the bulk of the responsibility for civil defense fall to three different agencies: the OEP would advise the President, HUD’s Federal Disaster Assistance Agency would manage disaster relief, and the DCPA would coordinate State and local preparedness efforts.185 Though these bureaucratic changes were not complete until the Carter Administration, some Congressional committees were already beginning to investigate the problem of disjointed civil defense. In 1976, the House Armed Services Committee recommended that an office within the Executive Office of the President (EOP) be tasked to manage civil defense, while the Joint Committee on Defense Production recommended combining the three agencies into one body.186 These recommendations, coming during the final months of the Ford Administration, were evaluated in the subsequent Carter Administration.

Overall civil defense funding during Ford’s tenure did not change significantly from the Nixon years. With the implementation of the CRP, Secretary of Defense Schlesinger made modest increases in the 1975 budget to develop city evacuation plans and implement population defenses.187 However, as in previous Administrations, civil defense still competed for funding against more traditional military expenditures, and the 1975 increases were nullified the following year in favor of spending on offensive military capabilities

In sum, despite ambitious claims of progress by the Ford Administration, civil defense programs within the United States remained less than effective. U.S. nuclear deterrence plans still emphasized offensive capabilities. In its evaluation of the state of civil defense in 1976, the Congressional Research Service unconditionally labeled the efforts “a charade.”189 It would be another five years before significant progress was made

Carter Administration (1977-1981)

Upon taking office, President Carter immediately began a review of the disjointed system of bureaucracies that managed civil defense. An interagency study led to Presidential Review Memorandum 32 in September of 1977.190 The study concurred with the 1976 recommendations of the House Armed Services Committee and Joint Committee on Defense Production that the various civil defense agencies must be combined into one coherent agency in direct contact with the White House.191 In response, Carter issued Presidential Directive (PD) 41 in September of 1978, which sought to clarify the Administration’s view of civil defense. However, it did not offer any particular plan for implementation.192 According to PD 41, civil defense was an element in the strategy to “enhance deterrence and stability”. Civil defense still did not become a priority for the Administration, which concluded that it was not necessary to pursue “equivalent survivability” with the Soviet Union.

Meanwhile, in the midst of a lengthy debate regarding the creation of a single disaster preparedness agency, an unprecedented civilian nuclear accident unfolded on March 28, 1979 at the nuclear energy plant on Three Mile Island, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.194 By highlighting the slow response, poor local Federal coordination, and miscommunications that occurred; the accident dramatically demonstrated the need for more effective disaster coordination and planning.195 Partially in response to the near nuclear disaster, on July 20, 1979 the Administration issued Executive Order 12148, which established the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as the lead agency for coordinating Federal disaster relief efforts. FEMA absorbed the Federal Insurance Administration, the National Fire Prevention and Control Administration, the National Weather Service Community Preparedness Program, the Federal Preparedness Agency of the General Services Administration, and the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration activities from HUD, and combined them into a single independent agency. At the time, the creation of FEMA represented the single largest consolidation of civil defense efforts in U.S. history.

Despite the reorganization and move toward greater mission clarity, civil defense planning on the ground did not change dramatically. Practical plans continued to reflect traditional civil defense programs and did not adopt the dual-use approach, though Carter did urge FEMA to direct more of its efforts to coping with peacetime disasters.196 Evacuation continued to be the focus of Federal planners, and Secretary of Defense Harold Brown reaffirmed his predecessor’s crisis relocation strategies.197 When FEMA assumed responsibility for citizen preparedness, the agency called on civil defense planners nationwide to create area-specific CRPs.

The decision to continue to pursue evacuation as the primary civil defense policy was influenced by several factors. Well-funded and extensive Soviet evacuation programs continued to worry key U.S. decision makers, including Brown.199 Evacuation also made sense in the context of continued resource limitations. According to a 1979 FEMA report, since effective and cost-efficient sheltering in large cities had proven difficult, “the U.S. nuclear civil defense program developed into an evacuation program…as a low-cost survival alternative.”

It is likely that the Carter Administration’s focus on evacuation was also affected by Cold War diplomacy. The continuing SALT negotiations created a conflict between the desire to advance U.S. civil defense, and the desire to avoid upsetting the delicate strategic balance required for successful threat reduction negotiations. With this balance in mind, maintaining the status quo by continuing to support evacuation policies may have been deemed the best option.

Though the creation of FEMA and the goals of PD 41 signaled renewed interest in civil defense, funding throughout the Carter Administration remained historically low. The 1980 request for $108 million was less than adequate for implementing the new plans.202 In the following year, Congress did not meet a higher request for funding, instead choosing to allocate funds to other priorities.203 As had been the case many times before, funding levels did not match the ambitious plans for program improvement.

In keeping civil defense funding low, Congressional leaders had little public opposition to fear. In contrast to generally widespread public participation and acceptance in the peak years of civil defense during the early stages of the Cold War, most people by this time had little faith that any government civil defense planning could lessen the impact of nuclear war.204 Some local communities refused outright to cooperate with Federal civil defense mandates because they did not believe the CRPs would be effective if a nuclear attack were to occur.205 This public attitude would continue throughout the remainder of the Cold War period.

Reagan Administration (1981-1989) It would appear that Ronald Reagan entered office with the intention of building upon the civil defense foundations set by his predecessors. In December 1981, Congress acted dramatically in favor of the dual-use approach by amending the 1950 Civil Defense Act. In this milestone decision, all future civil defense funds would be allotted for natural disasters, as well as attacks on the homeland.206 The amendment did stipulate that funding and planning for peacetime disasters could not overtly detract from attack preparedness programs. Nevertheless, dual use preparedness was promoted with much of the same language and reasoning as it was during the Nixon Administration.

Though Reagan was in favor of the dual-use approach, his civil defense strategy was largely a continuation of Carter’s. In the midst of deliberations regarding the 1982 budget, the National Security Council (NSC) compiled National Security Division Directive (NSDD) 26, which spelled out the objectives of Carter’s Presidential Directive 41 and was designed to promote deterrence, improve natural disaster preparedness, and reduce the possibility of coercion by enemy forces.208 The unclassified version of NSDD 26 states: “it is a matter of national priority that the United States have a Civil Defense program which provides for the survival of the U.S. population.”209 However, NSDD 26 went further than PD 41 by stipulating a concrete deadline in 1989 for plans to protect the population, and it mandated that civil defense leaders investigate and enhance protection measures for critical industries in case of attack.210 Furthermore, NSDD 26 for the first time supported research into the development of strategies to ensure economic survival in the event of a nuclear attack.211 However, drawing upon the CRPs of his predecessors, Reagan continued to promote evacuation the primary strategy for civil defense. During this period nuclear preparedness became a top priority for FEMA

Congress and the Administration came into conflict in February 1982, when the President requested $4.2 billion for a seven-year plan to massively boost civil defense programs.213 Congress did not react positively to this request, particularly because it seemed to be part of Reagan’s hawkish stance on Cold War diplomacy.214 For example, the House Committee on Appropriations criticized FEMA’s dependence on evacuation planning at the expense of other preparedness programs and suggested that more attention be paid to peacetime disaster preparation. Expressing their disagreement with FEMA’s plans, Congress allocated only $147.9 million to cover FEMA’s 1983 budget, about 58% of what the agency had requested.215 In 1984 and 1985, Congress again blocked requests for funding increases.

In 1983, FEMA responded to the Congressional push for more peacetime disaster preparation with plans for an Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) to develop full all-hazard preparedness plans at the Federal level.217 Under the IEMS, State civil defense planners would facilitate the development of multi hazard preparedness plans based on threats faced by specific localities.218 According to the IEMS, this all-hazards approach included “direction, control and warning systems which are common to the full range of emergencies from small isolated events to the ultimate emergency – war.”219 Despite this innovative attempt to integrate civil defense and disaster preparedness concerns, Congress was not sufficiently convinced that the IEMS would effectively address the management of all hazard preparedness, and therefore never met requested FEMA funding levels. Cold War diplomacy continued to play a role in civil defense decisions under Reagan. President Reagan supported neither the doctrine of mutual assured destruction nor the détente that had been a centerpiece of the Carter Administration.220 On March 23, 1983 Reagan openly rejected mutual assured destruction with his speech proposing the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). SDI focused on using ground-based and space based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles.221 SDI flew in the face of the 1972 SALT I agreement banning strategic defenses, and it demonstrated a shift towards more proactive and aggressive defensive measures.

The final years of the Reagan Administration saw a number of actions intended to allay concerns regarding non-attack preparedness. The Meese Memorandum (Executive Order 12656), signed in 1986, delegated lead response roles to certain Federal agencies, depending on the type of disaster.222 On November 23, 1988 the Disaster Relief Act of 1974 was amended to become what is now known as the Stafford Act, resulting in a clearer definition of FEMA’s role in emergency management. The Act defined the disaster declaration process and provided the statutory authority for Federal assistance during a disaster. The agency’s role in disaster response would be tested and debated in the years to come.

Bush Administration (1989-1993) In the year after George H.W. Bush took office, several natural disasters challenged the Nation’s nascent approach to all-hazards preparedness. On March 24, 1989, 11 million gallons of crude oil spilled into Prince William Sound in the Gulf of Alaska from the Exxon Valdez oil tanker.223 It was the largest oil spill in U.S. history, and the Administration was ill-prepared to manage an environmental crisis of such large scale. Instead of using FEMA through the Stafford Act to coordinate the response, Bush invoked the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, under which the Environmental Protection Agency and Coast Guard managed the event. The Administration drew much criticism for the poor response

On September 13, 1989, Hurricane Hugo struck the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and South Carolina, inflicting significant damage. This time Bush chose to send Manuel Lujan, Secretary of the Interior, to assess the damage and provide additional executive oversight.225 FEMA’s participation in the response was plagued by shortages of properly trained personnel, communication problems, and a lack of coordination.226 Within a month of Hurricane Hugo, the Loma Prieta earthquake struck northern California causing an estimated $6 billion in damage. Already stretched thin from dealing with the Hurricane Hugo recovery, FEMA’s response continued to be hindered by coordination and staffing problems. Again, President Bush appointed a Cabinet-level representative, Secretary of Transportation Samuel Skinner, to oversee recovery operations, and again FEMA’s contribution to response and recovery was judged inadequate.

The dissatisfaction with FEMA’s response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Hurricane Hugo, and the Loma Prieta Earthquake led FEMA to begin developing the Federal Response Plan (FRP) in November 1990.228 Drawing from the Incident Command System and Incident Management System framework, the FRP defined how 27 Federal agencies and the American Red Cross would respond to the needs of State and local governments when they were overwhelmed by a disaster. The plan used a functional approach to define the types of assistance (such as food, communications, and transportation) that would be provided by the Federal government to address the consequences of disaster. 

By the second year of the Bush administration, significant political changes were occurring. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989, followed shortly by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of communist governments across Eastern Europe. The Cold War had come to a rapid and unanticipated end, and the threat of a strategic nuclear attack on the United States diminished significantly almost overnight. As a result, civil defense in the traditional sense was no longer a major priority for emergency planners or Congress. With the recent onslaught of natural and man-made disasters top-of-mind, FEMA planners began to adopt the idea of a true all-hazards approach to disaster preparedness. In March of 1992, President Bush signed National Security Directive 66 instructing FEMA to develop a multi-hazard approach to emergency management, combining civil defense preparedness with natural and man-made disaster preparedness

Testifying before the Armed Services Subcommittee Hearing on Civil Defense on May 6, 1992, Grant Peterson, Associate Director for State and Local Programs at FEMA, reported that:

The President has approved a new civil defense policy…The new policy acknowledges significant changes in the range of threats, and eliminates the heavy emphasis on nuclear attack. The policy recognizes the need for civil defense to address all forms of catastrophic emergencies, all hazards, and the consequences of those hazards. The new policy increases the emphasis on preparedness to respond to the consequences of all emergencies regardless of their cause. All-hazards consequence management recognizes that regardless of the cause of an emergency situation, certain very basic capabilities are necessary to respond and that planning efforts and resources should be focused on developing the capabilities necessary to respond to all the common effects of all hazards.

In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew hit south Florida and the central Louisiana coast. President Bush once again appointed a Cabinet-level representative, Secretary of Transportation Andrew Card, to coordinate Federal relief efforts.232 Unfortunately, this additional oversight did not result in improved performance as “government at all levels was slow to comprehend the scope of the disaster.”233 And despite the presence of the FRP, FEMA and the other agencies involved in the response and recovery faced the same kinds of coordination and logistical problems they had three years prior. FEMA was strongly criticized by Congress for its poor performance.

As a result of this criticism, FEMA was instructed by Congress to contract with the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) to conduct a study of the Federal, State, and local level capacity to respond to major natural disasters.234 Issued in February 1993, NAPA’s assessment, Coping With Catastrophe, detailed the obstacles facing emergency management at all levels of government and made recommendations to improve FEMA’s ability to prepare and respond to disasters. NAPA concluded that, “a small independent agency could coordinate the federal response to major natural disasters…but only if the White House and Congress take significant steps to make it a viable institution.”235 Because of the timing of the report, it was left to the Clinton Administration to evaluate the findings and implement changes to make FEMA more effective. 

Clinton Administration (1993-2001) Upon taking office, President Bill Clinton appointed James Lee Witt director of FEMA. Witt, the former Director of Emergency Management for the State of Arkansas, immediately reorganized FEMA.236 He created three functional directorates corresponding to the major phases of emergency management: Mitigation; Preparedness; Training and Exercise; and Response and Recovery.237 In February of 1996, Clinton elevated the FEMA directorship to Cabinet-level status, improving the line of communication between the Director and the President.

The shift in emergency preparedness towards an all-hazards approach allowed FEMA to focus on addressing natural disasters without having to fear negative political reactions from advocates of civil defense.239 The Agency’s Mitigation Directorate, for example, focused many of its early programs on hazards such as flooding and earthquakes.240 At the same time, however, recognition of the threat of terrorist attacks inside the United States was beginning to emerge. In 1993, Congress included a joint resolution in the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) that called for FEMA to develop “a capability for early detection and warning of and response to: potential terrorist use of chemical or biological agents or weapons; and emergencies or natural disasters involving industrial chemicals or the widespread outbreak of disease.”

As evidenced by this resolution, Congress was becoming increasingly concerned about the threat posed by terrorist organizations and technological disasters. Much of this concern resulted from the World Trade Center bombing earlier that year, in which 6 people were killed and 1,042 were wounded. The blast left a five story deep crater and caused $500 million in damages

In November 1994, the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 was repealed and all remnants of civil defense authority were transferred to Title VI of the Stafford Act.242 This completed the evolution of civil defense into an all-hazards approach to preparedness. FEMA now had the statutory responsibility for coordinating a comprehensive emergency preparedness system to deal with all types of disasters. Title VI also ended all Armed Services Committee oversight over FEMA and significantly reduced the priority of national security programs within FEMA. Money authorized by the Civil Defense Act was reallocated to natural disaster and all hazards programs, and more than 100 defense and security staff members were reassigned

The period between 1995 and 1996 saw a series of major terrorist attacks launched domestically and abroad, which further influenced U.S. preparedness policies. In March 1995, the Japanese religious cult Aum Shinrikyo released sarin nerve gas on five separate cars of three different subway lines in Tokyo. Twelve people were killed and thousands were injured. One month later, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols detonated a truck bomb at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 169 people. On June 25, 1996 the Khobar Towers, a U.S. military facility in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia was bombed, killing 19 Americans.

These events had a profound effect on U.S. lawmakers and the Administration.245 Two days after the bombing of the Khobar Towers, the Senate adopted an amendment aimed at preventing terrorists from using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons in the United States.246 In September Congress passed the NDAA for fiscal year 1997, which included the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act commonly known as the Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Act.247 This Act required DOD to provide civilian agencies at all levels of government training and expert advice on appropriate responses to the use of a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) against the American public. Lawmakers originally planned to have FEMA lead the training and provide equipment; however, FEMA officials had testified that only DOD had the necessary knowledge and assets .

As a result of the Nunn-Lugar-Domenici legislation, Metropolitan Medical Strike Force Teams were created, as well as a domestic terrorism rapid response team, whose purpose was to aid State and local officials in WMD response.249 Three years later, WMD preparedness was transferred from DOD to the Office of Domestic Preparedness (ODP) within the Department of Justice (DOJ).250 In 1999, DOD also established 10 National Guard Rapid Assessment and Initial Detection (RAID) teams, which served to provide technical expertise and equipment to deal with a WMD attack.251 The unanticipated result of these actions was a new fragmentation of responsibility for civilian preparedness programs. Despite its overtures toward all-hazards preparedness, many of FEMA’s efforts remained focused on natural disasters. Meanwhile, DOD through its RAID teams, and DOJ through ODP, became increasingly involved in preparations for and responses to WMD threats.

Apart from these efforts, as the century came to a close, a new concept of homeland security began to emerge. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 62, signed in May 1998, created the Office of the National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counter-Terrorism within the Executive Office of the President. This office was designed to coordinate counterterrorism policy, preparedness, and consequence management.252 Later that same year, President Clinton issued PDD 63 on Critical Infrastructure Protection. PDD 63 established principles for protecting the nation by minimizing the threat of smaller-scale terrorist attacks against information technology and geographically distributed supply chains that could cascade and disrupt entire sectors of the economy.253 In the absence of a centralized authority for homeland security, Federal agencies were designated as lead agencies in their sector of expertise. The lead agencies were directed to develop sector-specific Information Sharing and Analysis Centers to coordinate efforts with the private sector. PDD 63 also required the creation of a National Infrastructure Assurance Plan.

At the same time, the U.S. Commission on National Security in the 21st Century, chartered by DOD, and known as the Hart Rudman Commission, began to reexamine U.S. national security policies.254 One of the Commission’s recommendations was the creation of a Cabinet-level National Homeland Security Agency responsible for planning, coordinating, and integrating various U.S. government activities involved in “homeland security”. The commission defined homeland security as “the protection of the territory, critical infrastructures, and citizens of the United States by Federal, State, and local government entities from the threat or use of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, cyber, or conventional weapons by military or other means.” Legislation toward this end was introduced on March 29, 2001, but hearings continued through April of 2001 without passage of the legislation.

Another influential commission formed during the latter stages of the Clinton Administration was the Gilmore Commission, chaired by Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore. The Commission, officially known as the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction, developed and delivered a series of five reports to the President and Congress between 1999 and 2003.256 Of the Gilmore Commission's 164 recommendations, 146 were adopted in whole or in part 257, including creation of a fusion center to integrate and analyze all intelligence pertaining to terrorism and counterterrorism and the creation of a civil liberties oversight board.258 However, the impetus to implement many of these recommendations only occurred following the series of devastating attacks on the U.S. homeland that occurred during the initial months of the next administration.

Bush Administration (2001-Present)

The initial months of George W. Bush’s presidency saw a general continuation of existing homeland security policies. Prior to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, OMB summarized homeland security as focused on three objectives: counterterrorism, defense against WMD, and the protection of critical infrastructure The new Administration did implement changes that affected how national security and homeland security policies would be generated. The Administration abolished the system of ad hoc interagency working groups used by Clinton to address homeland security issues and replaced them with Policy Coordination Committees within the National Security Council. A Counterterrorism and National Preparedness Policy Coordinating Committee was established that was composed of four working groups: Continuity of Federal Operations, Counterterrorism and Security, Preparedness and WMD, and Information Infrastructure Protection and Assurance.260 The goal of this reorganization was to create a more formalized structure to deal with threats to the homeland. 

Then came the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. In their wake, there was near universal agreement within the Federal government that homeland security required a major reassessment, increased funding, and administrative reorganization. In October 2001, the White House Office of Homeland Security was established via executive order to work with Executive departments and agencies to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks.261 President Bush chose Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge to lead the new Office. In March 2002 another executive order created the Homeland Security Advisory Council to advise the President on homeland security matters. The Council, located within the Executive Office of the President, is comprised of leaders from State and local government, first responder communities, the private sector, and academia.

In his 2002 State of the Union address, the President announced the establishment of the USA Freedom Corps to promote a culture of service, citizenship, and responsibility in America. Under the Freedom Corps initiative, the White House established Citizen Corps within FEMA to engage individual citizens through education, training, and volunteer service to make communities better prepared to prevent, protect, respond, and recover from all-hazards. Citizen Corps involved Americans in programs such as Community Emergency Response Teams, Fire Corps, Neighborhood Watch, Medical Reserve Corps, and Volunteers in Police Service.

Then on March 12, 2002, the Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was created to communicate with the American public and safety officials using a threat-based, color-coded system, so protective measures can be implemented to reduce the likelihood or impact of an attack on the homeland.262 Because raising the threat condition can have detrimental economic, physical, and psychological effects on the nation, the Federal government can place specific geographic regions or industry sectors on a higher alert status, as the specificity of threat based intelligence permits

The Bush Administration also began to develop a number of strategic documents and statements that outlined the President’s vision for protecting the nation. These included the National Security Strategy, the National Strategy for Homeland Security (NSHS), and the National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. The NSHS was released by the Office of Homeland Security, and its purpose was “to provide a framework to align the resources of the federal budget directly to the task of securing the homeland” against terrorist attack.264 The NSHS was a comprehensive strategic document that advanced six critical mission areas: intelligence and warning, border and transportation security, domestic counterterrorism, protecting critical infrastructure, defending against catastrophic terrorism, and emergency preparedness and response. Importantly, the NSHS gave the proposed Department of Homeland Security (DHS) “a central role” in implementing the NSHS and directed the new department to “serve as the primary federal point of contact for state and local governments, the private sector, and the American people.”

As these strategic plans were being developed, Congress continued to push for more substantial reorganization of the Federal agencies involved in homeland security. A bipartisan group of Senate and House members proposed an ambitious new Department of Homeland Security. The President submitted his own plan for the creation of a homeland security department on June 6, 2002. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 established the new Department on November 25, 2002, and the President named Ridge its first Secretary in January 2003.

As the head of a Cabinet-level department, Ridge obtained increased budgetary authority and control over many of the agencies involved in homeland security. In the largest government reorganization since the creation of DOD in the late 1940s, DHS inherited approximately 200,000 people from 22 Federal agencies, and an initial budget of $37 billion.

One of the first major initiatives of the newly created DHS was the release of its citizen preparedness website, Ready.gov, in February 2003. The Ready Campaign began a national public service advertising campaign produced by The Ad Council in partnership with DHS designed to educate and empower Americans to prepare for and respond to natural disasters and potential terrorist attacks.

DHS also began addressing priority issues of transportation, border, and port security. Steps to bolster aviation security included deploying newly trained federal screeners at airports and placing thousands of federal air marshals on flights to protect passengers and crew.268 Also, Ridge oversaw a significant expansion of the Container Security Initiative. In less than a year, the United States was working with allies in 17 international ports to inspect and secure the thousands of containers of cargo that arrive daily at U.S. shores.

Understandably, much of the Department’s initial work focused on addressing the threat of domestic terrorism. However, the DHS mandate encompassed the full range of disasters and attacks, and all-hazards preparedness soon became a top priority as well. Homeland Security Presidential Directive-8: National Preparedness (HSPD-8), issued in December 2003, defined preparedness as encompassing “threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 270 HSPD8 also spelled out the need for DHS to take a leading role in creating a National Preparedness Goal; coordinating Federal, State, local, and private sector efforts to encourage active citizen participation in preparedness; and developing a comprehensive plan to provide accurate and timely preparedness information to citizens.

The National Preparedness Goal was first released in interim form on March 31, 2005. It presented preparedness as a coordinated, national effort involving every level of government, the private sector, nongovernmental organizations, and individual citizens, and called for the development and strengthening of capabilities that would address the full range of homeland security missions (prevention, protection, response and recovery).

Under Ridge, DHS took a fresh look at the way Federal, State, local, tribal and private sector resources work together to deal with emergencies. A new National Response Plan (NRP) was developed to replace the earlier Federal Response Plan, and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was introduced to provide a common framework for incident management. A National Strategy for Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets was also developed, officially recognizing the role of the private sector and the need for partnerships between government and the private sector in protecting the nation. The structure for such partnerships was further detailed in the National Infrastructure Protection Plan, issued in June 2006.

Preparedness took on even greater prominence within the Department under Ridge’s successor, Michael Chertoff. Shortly after taking office in February 2005, Chertoff initiated a Second Stage Review of the Department’s organization, operations, and policies. The following six-point agenda resulted from the review: increase preparedness with a focus on catastrophic events; strengthen border security and interior enforcement and reform immigration processes; harden transportation security without sacrificing mobility; enhance information sharing with our U.S. government and private sector partners; improve DHS financial, human resource, procurement and information technology management; and realign the DHS organization to maximize mission performance.272 The review also resulted in the creation of a new Directorate of Preparedness and further integration of preparedness activities.

The Nation’s preparedness received another serious test when on August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Mississippi and Louisiana coasts. The storm was followed by levee failures in New Orleans, and caused unprecedented devastation. With virtually the entire Mississippi coast leveled by storm surge, and much of the city of New Orleans under water, the Federal, State, and local response proved inadequate to the unprecedented catastrophic challenge. The National Response Plan, aimed at coordinating the response to major disasters, was less than one year old when the hurricane hit. It had not been fully trained across all agencies and levels of government, and had never been tested in a major event. The White House, Senate, and House of Representatives’ investigative reports written in the months following the hurricane’s landfall cited numerous shortcomings in response efforts.

State and local level preparedness for the disaster also proved to be flawed. President Bush, recognizing the importance of having adequate plans in place, demanded a nationwide review of the status of catastrophic planning. DHS and the Department of Transportation were tasked to conduct the review in major urban areas across the country.

The results were released on June 16, 2006. The Review determined that disaster planning for catastrophic events in the United States suffers from failure to account for the full scope of catastrophic events; outmoded planning processes, products, and tools; and inadequate attention to coordination.

While recognizing the importance of Federal leadership and coordination, DHS and the Bush Administration continue to stress that State and local governments must be the first line of defense against disaster and attack. DHS administers grant programs that since 2003 have provided over $2.1 billion to States for interoperable communications equipment, planning, training, and exercises.273 In total, DHS has awarded $18 billion in grants to State and local governments to improve preparedness levels.274 DHS has also provided counterterrorism training to more than 1.2 million emergency response personnel from across the country on a range of incident response issues such as incident management, unified command, and public works protection and response.275 Finally, the Department has conducted more than 400 exercises at the Federal, State, and local level to improve preparedness for and response to terrorist attacks and natural disasters.


The history of civil defense and homeland security in the United States has been one of frequent policy and organizational change. The changes have been driven by many factors including an evolving threat environment, major natural disasters that have resulted in immense destruction, and the specific preferences of presidential administrations. One of the most important recent drivers, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, led directly to increased funding and focus on homeland security, and specifically the creation of DHS. However, just a few years later, the scale of the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina showed that the country remains vulnerable to natural disasters, as well as to man made accidents. Civil defense began with the desire to involve Americans in the protection of their fellow citizens and critical infrastructure from destruction at the hands of our enemies, and evolved over time to encompass coordinated, professional efforts, involving all levels of government, the private sector, and citizens, to address a wide range of disaster and attack scenarios. As the nation’s population growth and economic development have put more and more people, property, and infrastructure at risk, and as the political importance of national preparedness has grown, the scope of preparedness efforts is likely to continue to expand.

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This is the UNOFFICIAL History Site of the Baltimore Police Department. It depicts the history of the department as was originally conceived of, and told by Retired Officer, William M. Hackley. Sadly Officer Hackley passed away on 15 March 2012 leaving his site to Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll. It took a month or so to take full responsibility for the site and its content. The thoughts and use of certain items, terms, sounds, and implications are not necessarily those that would be agreed upon by the Baltimore Police Department, as an official Governmental Agency. Likewise, we do not seek their permission or approval to post the things we post, and as such, nothing in these pages should be held against them.

The intent of this site is more than just to tell our history, to have everyone remember our Injured, and Fallen Heroes, those who in the performance of their duties were called upon to make the Ultimate Sacrifice.

So as you surf these pages, you will see the Baltimore Police Department from its infancy, showing the crude methods of policing in the 1700's, through to the 1800's and become the modern highly efficient department that it has become today.

Enjoy the site for what it is, a rendition of the proud history of one of this country’s finest Police Departments, one for which those of us who have worked it, are proud of, and honored to have served. The many men and women that still proudly serve, and those that someday will serve.

Any request for official police information should first be made directly to:

Baltimore Police Department
242 W. 29th St., Baltimore, MD.

Emergencies: 9-1-1  Non-emergencies: 410-396-2037
BALTIMORE POLICE Web Site: http://www.baltimorepolice.org 

1 blue devider 800 8 72Donations

Donations help with web hosting, stamps and materials and the cost of keeping the website online. Thank you so much for helping BCPH. 

Paypal History Donations

1 blue devider 800 8 72POLICE INFORMATION

Copies of: Your Baltimore Police Department Class Photo, Pictures of our Officers, Vehicles, Equipment, Newspaper Articles relating to our department and or officers, Old Departmental Newsletters, Lookouts, Wanted Posters, and or Brochures. Information on Deceased Officers and anything that may help Preserve the History and Proud Traditions of this agency. Please contact Retired Detective Kenny Driscoll.

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How to Dispose of Old Police Items

Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department.

Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll 

Baltimore Police Boys Club

Monday, 03 February 2020 07:22


Baltimore City Police Boys Club
History if Baltimore City Police Boy's Club

Starting in 1944 and continuing through the 1980s, the Baltimore Police sponsored a Boys’ Clubs throughout the city with financial help from Buddies Inc. and a Baltimore Businessmen’s Organization. Policemen chipped in to buy sports equipment, and gave an abundance of personal time and attention teaching games, and giving talks about citizenship, civic responsibility, community relation, and police work. Buddies Inc. raised funds for events like Baltimore Colts Night, and a series of shows Called Up With The People and Baltimore Orioles games. The Shiners of the Bowie Temple in Baltimore joined in supporting the Boys Club in 1977 with a share of the proceeds from the annual Shrine Circus. The First Club was started by Southwestern District. All of the club’s numbering from 2 to 4 at various times were led by Police Officers and Police Cadets. Some boys went one to become cadets. In the late seventies, the department experimented with expanding the club to include girls the name was changed to Youth Clubs, but the idea proved unfeasible and was soon abandoned. Today the club said been replaced by the activities of the Police Athletic League or PAL.

Summer camps for hundreds of inner-city youngsters under 16, who otherwise would have spent their summers idly and devastated or dangerous neighborhoods, began in 1945  NWD Police Boys Club basketball team 1950son land provided by the U. S Army at Fort Ritchie in Catoctin Maryland’s Mountains. The camps were extensions of the department’s work with the Boys Club. The founder of the camps was Captain William Heart, the first Commander of the Department’s Youth Division. When the Army Land was needed for military purposes in 1974 Commissioner Donald Pomerleau and the Buddies Inc. raised funds to buy an alternative site one route 23 at Deer Run in Harford County. The new location was named, Camp Walter Perkins for the founder of Buddies Inc.

Sarah Callan worked for the department for 47 years before retiring in 1970, kept the books and handled administrative detail for the club and camps. Other key figures were in the league Vance, who helped with whatever needed doing in the early days, Major Patricia A. Mullen, who directed Police Youth Services in the 70’s and 80’s, and Sergeant Don Farley supervisor of the club and camp activities in the same., Period.

As a police and the Baltimore aerial council of the boy scouts of America have cooperated since 19681 programs presented by the scouts one law enforcement day. Each of the nine police districts as sponsored an explorer scout troop since 1944.

The department joined Federal, state, and county law enforcement agencies and hosting all day in March 1980. The event held at the inner harbor, featured a variety of law enforcement as if it’s, explanations of fingerprinting and its value, continuous motion pictures of the crime prevention, a helicopter demonstration, and rolls by the department’s mount unit, always a favorite of the public. Erik Estrada then starring in the television series ships up here did rash field to support the event.

A successful youth division program was created in 1978 by the department’s youth services division now if they use bureau. Teenagers who committed minor crimes like shoplifting join in 90 days of mandatory counseling with a use officer, who attempts to discover the youngsters' interests and a way to pursue those interest as a substitute for idle hands and idle time. The program provides a great deal more in just a warning and in it and I’m conditional release. It can, however, in appropriate cases and with a miscreants cooperation, of the lead the severity of juvenile court.

The southwest district commander of community relations section added A theatrical talks to its work in 1971 police Officer Charles L. Clayton Sr. Better known as buck Clayton with the support of district Commander Richard G. Francis became Charley the magic cop. Clean a recognize professional magician, began making appearances before school children, using is sliding and showmanship to teach safety, brotherhood, patriotism, added dangers of narcotic. The Baltimore police department participated through the 1970s and 1980s in annual Baltimore City fairs as both guardians of the peace and exhibitor of the law enforcement information.


Baltimore Police Boys Club members left to right Sonny Augustyniak, Butch Kotowski, Jim Galloway, and John Randle the Colts Allen “The Horse” Ameche and Claude “Buddy” Young in a training camp visit.

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The Police Boys Club of Baltimore

The Police Boys Club of Baltimore is making valuable contributions in the struggle against juvenile delinquency. Calculated to meet the recreational needs of 8 to 18-year-old, club activities include athletics, sports, crafts, woodworking, and scouting. Each club is equipped with a library, recreation room, game rooms, and wood workshops.

The clubs are located at the following:
Eastern, Police Boys Club - 1619 Bank St.,
Northwestern, Police Club - Calhoun and Gold Street
Southern, Police Boys Club - Patapsco and Olmsted
Southwestern, Police Boys Club - Calhoun and Pratt Street

  SW boys club

First Police Boys Club Formed in Southwestern District
Proves Success
9 June 1944

Applying as a gauge the boys 

Enthusiasm for the club and their readiness to become members. The Southwestern Police Boys' Club. the first of several similar clubs to be established in various sections of the city under the direction of the Baltimore Police Department. is already a success far beyond the hopes of its founders. The club's memberships large enough at its beginning a scant two weeks ago. is growing by leaps and bounds. With facilities to comfortably accommodate approximately 100 boys more than 400 were signed members on the opening night. That list has grown to over 550 and more applications are pouring in each day. Officials in charge of the organization said. 

Fills Need for Fun 

Originally founded by the department as a weapon in its fight on juvenile delinquency, the club. which is installed in the specially renovated third floor of the station house at Pratt and Calhoun streets. has a fertile field in which to work. since that, thickly populated section of town has no recreation for its hundreds of children other than the streets. The clubs' plans. of course, are still in the formative stage. but its athletic program. which is under the direction of Officer.Joseph Epplier a former football player and bicycle racer. is ample proof of the need of such a work for boys of that area.

Except for baseball. which l guess every kid knows a little something about."Epplier  savs." We practically have to teach nearly every lad who comes to us how to play. For the most part, these kids don’t even know the rudiments of even the simplest games like, say ping pong 

Boys Are Willing

"But they are more than willing and are taking the sports like ducks to water. I took a batch of our new baseball equipment to Carroll Park the other day and the gang nearly mobbed me grabbing the gloves and bats in their eagerness to get a game going Epplier got the same reaction When he called for volunteers to man a track team which would represent the club in its first taste of outside competition in the All-For-Glory track meet held by the Department of Public Recreation at Carroll Park last Tuesday. Seventy-five boys showed up for the tryouts the Saturday previous to the Fourth. Epplier ran them through several qualifying heats and whipped some 65 of them together as entrants for Southwestern. 

Win First Meet 

Not only did the lads of the club practically make the meet-they had the largest single entry list but they also ran off with the majority of the honors. placing more firsts seconds and thirds than any of the other groups entered. Donald Bokman stepped off the 100-yard dash for 10-11 Years for the club in 14 seconds and Phillip Weinreich and Rollins Johnson placing second and third. Added points to the club's final record. Little Bill Cammarata in the 12-13 age group covered the same distance for the club in one second less than Rokman and again club members in Bob Peed and Bob May followed him in the next two positions. 

Bill Reis Donald Blurb and Bill Rawlings. all three clubbers captured The 14-15 group lOO·yard dash in that order. The boys of the club chalked up the honors in the 60-yard dash for 7-8 and 9 years as well. Eddie Grap hit the tape first, followed by Larry Smith and Roy Singletary. 

Plans For Winter 

While Lieut. Fred Glock. Who heads the club. and his assistants have their hands Full at the present getting the club moving smoothly. they are not too busy to think of the future. When the summer months are over the club expects to turn to basketball and boxing and wrestling For these latter sports Glock hopes to find sufficient talent in the department but if it isn't available there outside experts will be asked to help out. For purposes of competition, the boys of the club are divided into four groups. the midgets for boys from 8 to 10 junior, 11·12. Intermediates 13·16 and the seniors 16·18 The station resounds with The voices of about 125 boys each night. In addition to its outside athletics, the club contains pool tables. ping pong tables and games of a wide assortment for the boy. Other facilities include a well-stocked library, paneled in knotty pine and constructed by the policemen and a wood-working shop. equipped with power-driven tools. The club is open daily from 4 pm to 9 pm  

Schueler Heads Project 

The overall program of the department is under the direction of inspector John R. Schueler as chief of the Juvenile Protection Bureau William L. Hartung who has been serving in the Bureau of identification and who has been connected with local athletics for many years, is assistant to Schueler. Other officers in charge of special phases of the club are Fred Elgert who does most of the paperwork and Charles B. Gerick. The entire cost of equipping the club which amounted to $1500 was donated to the Southwestern by the Variety Club of Baltimore, Tent No. 9.

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police boys club
George D. Gilbert, 23 Years
Northwest Baltimore Police Clubs

George and the Gilbert of the Baltimore police department, who gave 23 years of service as club’s director, athletic director, club driver and rifle instructor of the western police boys club were eulogized at services 5 March as sharp street memorial United Methodist church. He was a 76 and died suddenly on February 28 new paragraph Robert Johnson, president of Douglass high school class of 1937 recalled fond memories of the deal when they attended the school’s 60 if reading in last June and Hal he was a good citizen and love helping youth. A resolution by Frank Ballston from the Maryland house of delegates also attested to his years of community service.

Jordan D. Gilbert was born January 20, 1920, at Johns Hopkins hospital the oldest of three children of Harry beacon Gilbert and Janie Jenkins. He was the grandson of Harriet Murphy Gilbert, one of five daughters of John H Murphy a senior founder of the African American newspaper and Harry Dion Gilbert. That’s an Afro printer he was responsible for an opening presses from the early flatbed press to the later Goss presses.

Harriet Gilbert Matthews, daughter of gymnastic Gilbert lane, gave in the family tribute to her uncle citing him as a father, brother, husband, grandfather, protector, and lover of children.

Gilbert is a graduate of Douglass high school and attended Morgan state college before world war two interrupted his schooling. His army service started in 1941 and closing service at camp Claiborne Ft Belvidere and Camp Gruber. After discharge in 1953, he worked and Social Security taking accounting and economics at Cortez Peters business school

He sort of service to the Baltimore police department in 1953 and worked the western district police boys club to 1958 and tools retirement in 1976. Poll web. Department of Recreation and Parks recall Officer Gilbert improve the lives of the young boys she came into contact with one gold street in the sand town area and Hauser sports and personal sacrifices proved to be a positive influence in many lives

The Rev. Dr. Bruce Haskins delivered the message of hope and Morse Queen, minister of music a Sharp Street gave an organ solo, “you’ll never walk alone”

He is survived by his wife, Ruth and order deal sister semester three stepchildren, six grandchildren. Pallbearers include Henry David’s Michael Robert and Matthew its and it wasn’t Woodlawn cemetery with funeral arrangements by march funeral homes west

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Bring Back Police-Sponsored Boys Clubs 

When my brother, Frank, and I were growing up in Baltimore City on South Calhoun Street we were both charter members of the Southwestern Police Boys Club on the third floor of the police station at Pratt and Calhoun streets. The club was run by full-time policemen and had an indoor basketball court, boxing ring, pool tables, ping-pong tables, a woodworking shop, a Boy Scout troop, and a TV room. I believe it was open six days a week and closed at about 9 p.m. In the summer, we would go away to Camp Ritchie for one or two weeks. I believe the cost was about $6 per week. We also had baseball teams and football teams.

As I look back on those happy times spent with my friends at the Boys Club and the devotion those policemen gave to helping us boys, I feel that that experience was a major factor in our growing up the process. I wouldn't trade it for anything. Back then, my brother and a friend of his got interested in ham radio and crystal sets while participating at the Boys Club. He eventually became an electrical engineer and a valuable employee at Bell Labs. He is now 81 years old and lives in Massachusetts. I loved to play pool and ping-pong and leaned toward the business side and became a Certified Public Accountant. I am 77 years old and live in Nottingham.

It baffles me as to why we don't have similar clubs to help the youngsters today. When we came home from school, we headed right for the Boys Club until supper time. Our parents knew where we were and that we were in good hands. I realize these are different times in which we live but the basic principles are still there. With a few adjustments, we could do it again. Our father was a retired police sergeant in Baltimore City, and I want to thank the policemen who devoted their time and talent in molding us kids during the early years of our youth. We respected them and they were our friends. I hope this might encourage officials in Baltimore and Baltimore County to rethink the idea of closing the Police Boys Clubs. They did and do make a difference.

Bob Witt, Nottingham

  SD Boys club

 Retired cop defends Baltimore police Athletic League

As the Baltimore Police Athletic League prepares to end because of budget cuts and transfer centers to the city's Department of Recreation and Parks, community activists, residents and others are starting to rise up. I got this e-mail from retired Baltimore police Lt. Osborne B. McCarter:

It has been quite some time since I talked to someone from the media, but after reading your article and reflecting on my 32.5 years as a public servant with the Baltimore Police Department, connecting with the present situations that are occurring, I can only conclude that the powers to be, has finally gotten their wish.

Peter, as the last Operation Lieutenant running The PAL program and in furtherance of my professional career I elected to become a commander as a Deputy Mayor, I have been either directly or indirectly involved in four youth programs that have met some form of demised because of politics within the City of Baltimore.

First was the Boys Club, then The Explorer Program, followed by the Walbrook Academy, now the P.A.L.  Each program fostered a partnership between cops and kids, it was an investment being made in our youth and the feature of our city. I challenge anyone who has been involved with any of the youth programs to state differently.

For example, let's look at the Northeast District. But first let look back to the inner parts of the city where thousands of residents were displaced, like the construction of a highway to nowhere, built from Pulaski Street to M L K Blvd. so that workers at SS building could get into the city faster and get out at the end of the tour of duty quickly, then there was the implosion of the High Rises all of those residents were displaced throughout the city some into areas we officers used to call "Country Club Districts."

But as the displacement occurred so did the crime, crimes such as vandalism and graffiti, were all too common in areas once consider crime free, compared to some districts where a part one crime was expected at least one per day if not one per shift per sector.

The Goodnow area of the Northeast soon fell victim of the vandalism and graffiti followed by street robbers, gang and drug activities. The Goodnow PAL center which started off being a 7-Eleven closed not too long after opening, because of the crime in and around the store. Mrs. Army Mock, Sgt. R. Gibbson, Officers Lorie & Creg dedications and support from the community soon turned that area around from one of Blight to being one of the premier centers in the city. Thanks to the partnership between Mrs. Mock, Police Commissioner Thomas Frazier, Officer Lorie, and Officer Craig.

But who really benefited from what when on at the center? first were the kids from the community, then the community, its citizens, and the city benefited from the partnership that had been fostered between kids and cops. Well, O'Malley finally got his wish. Hermann, I pray that the youth of the city become enlighten as to the overall goals of the political official who are eliminating avenues for kids to avoid at-risk behavior and that voters see that as programs are being eliminated for the youth that there are more detention facilities being build and slated to be built. One can only conclude that the youth of the city are being targeted. I am thankful for having touched thousand of lives positively in one way or another over the 32 1/2 years of service within the Police department.

In Memory of Police Officer Troy Lewis Jr. who was a true and dedicated PAL officer died March 28, 2009. 


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Baltimore Police Honor Retiree
Sgt. James Dixon a Former Member of Montford Marines
Receives Congressional Gold Medal

BALTIMORE —A 33-year veteran of the Baltimore City Police Department brought home the highest civilian honor that can be awarded to an individual -- the Congressional Gold Medal. Sgt. James Dixon was a member of the Montford Marines, the first African-Americans in the U.S. Marine Corps. Between 1942 and 1949, about 20,000 black Marines were trained at Montford Point, N.C. In June, they were honored with the Congressional Gold Medal. On Tuesday, Dixon, who is now retired, was one of those honored. He brought his medal to the Baltimore City Police Department. "I wanted to say thank you for all you've done for the city of Baltimore and the United States of America," BCPD Acting Commissioner Anthony Barksdale said. Dixon's friends and fellow officers were also there to say thank you. "I really just love the guy. He was so intelligent, told great stories. He was just a tremendous police officer, a tremendous sergeant. Everybody loved him," retired BCPD Sgt. Alan Yeater said. "Sgt. Dixon was like a father-figure to us. It was a home away from home at the Western Police Boys Club," friend Terry Hall said. "He just treated everybody so well. He made you want to come to work. He didn't want to leave. He hated to take a day off," said retired BCPD Lt. Fred Roussey said. "He was just a terrific supervisor, a terrific man." Dixon served with the BCPD from 1954 to 1987, and he's seen a lot of changes over the years. "It's been an honor being in the Corps. It's been an honor being in the Police Department. I did 33 years in this Police Department. Trials and tribulations we've been through, but we've succeeded, and I see the results of our work," Dixon said. Do you know a local policeman, firefighter or military member that's being honored?

Colts Baltimore Police Boys Club 1960 72

Baltimore Police honor sergeant who served amid segregation

Dixon remembered as a trailblazer for blacks in the police force

July 17, 2012, |By Nick Cafferky, The Baltimore Sun

James Dixon joined the Baltimore Police Department in 1954 as a black officer in an era of widespread racial prejudice. Police posts were segregated and blacks were not allowed in patrol cars

On Tuesday, a quarter-century after he retired as a sergeant, Dixon returned to the department for a ceremony to honor his service and thank him for his role in helping the department through a time of social change. Dixon, 77, was given a BPD hat and coffee mug.

"I think today was really good for him because I don't think he realized how far the Police Department has come," said Derrick Dixon, James' son. "So for him to come out here and see a lot of Afro-American officers and commissioners, I think it blew his mind.

"I think now he realizes a lot of the things he did for the Police Department and a lot of first-time things he did for blacks and realizes what it led to," Derrick Dixon said.

The segregation in the police wasn't anything new for James Dixon, after his service in the military.

He was one of the hundreds of Marines from Montford Point, an all-black boot camp in North Carolina, to receive a Congressional Gold Medal last month.

"This was something I never expected, although the Tuskegee Airmen got theirs, so we shouldn't have been very far behind them," James Dixon said. "This is something I will cherish for the few days I have left in my life. But this is something I'm going to have framed and hung on the wall."

Dixon served in the Marines from 1944 until 1946, but his placement there was itself a stroke of luck. Drafted by the Navy, Dixon was willing to go to prison rather than join a unit where he was forced to serve food or swab decks like other blacks who were in the Navy during that era.

"I [said] that if I was put in the Navy, I was going AWOL because I wasn't going to serve any food or scrub any decks," Dixon said, teary-eyed. "Had I been put in the Navy, I would be in jail now. I'm not a servant."

Much has changed since then, but the department has not forgotten Dixon's contributions, said Acting Commissioner Anthony E. Barksdale.

"He's stood strong through all of it. And look at him. Still shining; still standing strong," said Barksdale. "He's giving me advice and telling me stories that are making me happy that I'm wearing the same uniform that he used to wear."

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

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Old Southwestern District Police Station

Since the doors opened at the former Southwestern District Police Station house on July 17, 1884, the square brick building at Pratt and Calhoun Streets has served the city in many different ways. When construction on the new building began in the fall of 1883, the Baltimore Sun claimed the new Southwestern district police station would "surpass in size, elegance and completely of arrangement any police building now in the city, and, indeed, it will have few equals in the country."

Builders Philip Walsh & Son and architect Frank E. Davis completed the three-story building with room for 47 officers. The men had been reassigned from the southern and eastern districts to serve under of veteran police officer Captain Daniel Lepson who led the brand-new district.

In the summer of 1944, Baltimore's first police boys' club moved into the upper floors, serving around 120 boys from 8 to 18 years old every day during the first few weeks after they opened. With donations from a local social club, the officers converted the station's third floor gymnasium into a  "big clubroom," described by the Sun as, "filled with tousle-haired boys noisily pushing at billiard balls, fashioning B-17's out of wood, nailing magazine racks together and eying each other craftily over checker games." The city started four boys' clubs in the 1940s, with a segregated facility for black children at the Northwestern District Police Station on Gold Street.

Both the officers and the Boys' Club departed in 1958 when the Southwestern District Police Station relocated to a modern, air-conditioned facility at Fonthill and Hurley Avenues. Following close on their tails, however, were the men and dogs of the department's K-9 Corps who moved their official headquarters from the Northern District station to Pratt Street.

Unfortunately, by the late 1970s, the building fell vacant. The Maryland Department of Social Services renovated the former police station in the early 1980s. When they left, the building fell vacant again. Today, the structure is deteriorating and remains at risk until a new use for this often reinvented building can be found. 

Original found here

Colts Baltimore Police Boys Club 1961 72

Bring back police-sponsored boys clubs

July 11, 2013

When my brother, Frank, and I were growing up in Baltimore City on South Calhoun Street we were both charter members of the Southwestern Police Boys Club on the third floor of the police station at Pratt and Calhoun streets. The club was run by full-time policemen and had an indoor basketball court, boxing ring, pool tables, ping-pong tables, a woodworking shop, a Boy Scout troop, and a TV room. I believe it was open six days a week and closed at about 9 p.m. In the summer, we would go away to Camp Ritchie for one or two weeks. I believe the cost was about $6 per week. We also had baseball teams and football teams.

As I look back on those happy times spent with my friends at the Boys Club and the devotion those policemen gave to helping us boys, I feel that that experience was a major factor in our growing up the process. I wouldn't trade it for anything. Back then, my brother and a friend of his got interested in ham radio and crystal sets while participating at the Boys Club. He eventually became an electrical engineer and a valuable employee at Bell Labs. He is now 81 years old and lives in Massachusetts. I loved to play pool and ping-pong and leaned toward the business side and became a Certified Public Accountant. I am 77 years old and live in Nottingham.

It baffles me as to why we don't have similar clubs to help the youngsters today. When we came home from school, we headed right for the Boys Club until supper time. Our parents knew where we were and that we were in good hands. I realize these are different times in which we live but the basic principles are still there. With a few adjustments, we could do it again. Our father was a retired police sergeant in Baltimore City, and I want to thank the policemen who devoted their time and talent in molding us kids during the early years of our youth. We respected them and they were our friends. I hope this might encourage officials in Baltimore and Baltimore County to rethink the idea of closing the Police Boys Clubs. They did and do make a difference.

Bob Witt, Nottingham

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Devider color with motto 

Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department.

Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll

The Civil War's First Dead

Friday, 31 January 2020 03:00

The Civil War's First Dead
civil warWith 12 Baltimoreans Killed In The Bloody Pratt Street Riot

The most significant action of the Civil War may have occurred in Baltimore on 19 April 1861 during the Pratt Street Riots, which directly caused 17 known deaths and at least 50 injuries and seven recorded arrests, which are now known as the first deaths of the Civil War. Many believe this attack on the union army was at least in part allowed by the Mayor and Police Commissioner at the time, as they were confederate or southern sympathizers one or both being part of the Know Nothing a political party in the US, prominent from 1853 to 1856, that was antagonistic toward Roman Catholics and recent immigrants and whose members preserved its secrecy by denying its existence.
Most of the fighting took place along President Street from near the Harbor North to Pratt Street along Pratt St., West to Light Street the violent action lasted from about 11 AM to 12:45 PM and mostly involved 220 New England Militiamen, some of whom carried and fired muskets, and a mob of Baltimore civilians including a New Maryland Militiamen out of uniform that was variously reported to number anywhere between 250 and 10,000 (more on those number in this report) and which fired a few pistols but fought mainly by grappling, and or hurling paving stones.
Of the 600 or so officers and men of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment, a volunteer militia, who passed from the President Street Station to Camden Station in route to Washington, four were killed and about 35 wounded. The dead soldiers all of enlisted rank, are Addison O Whitney, Luther C Ladd, Charles A Taylor, and Sumner H Needham. The last named died with little resistance in Baltimore Hospital about a week after the riots and during a 19th Century style operation on his fractured skull.
Of the 10,000 unarmed Pennsylvania Militiamen and the 100 additional members of the six Massachusetts including the Regiment Band who arrived at the same time none made it through the mob around President Street Station on this journey but only one died of injuries sustained here. He was George Leisenring, who also succumbed about a week later, after he returned to Philadelphia.
Many Baltimoreans were wounded, and 12 were killed – James Carr, William R. Clark, Robert W. Davis, Sebastian Gill, Patrick Griffiths, John McCann, John McMahon, Francis Maloney, William Maloney, Philip S. Miles, Michael Murphy, and William Reid.
At the time and off and on ever since leading Baltimoreans were and have been the most outraged by the death of Mr. Davis a 36-year-old Drygoods Merchant and Semi-innocent bystander he may have cheered for the Confederacy but he did not join the fighting, and was shot by someone on the 6th Massachusetts trained shortly after it left Camden Station. He cried, “I am killed!” as he fell and the next day a Baltimore coroner’s jury decided that he had been ruthlessly murdered. By one of the military Mr. Davis’s funeral was elaborate but his murder, if that term is strictly accurate was never named, charged, or prosecuted.
Two of the dead civilians Patrick Griffiths and William Reid were described as boys (which at the time might have meant that they were black, adult males white or black with low wage jobs, or that they may have been very young, probably poor white males). Patrick Griffith was employed on an Oyster’s Sloop that was tied up near Pratt and Light Street. William Reid was employed by a Pratt Street establishment described only as of “The Greenhouse” and was shot through the bowels while looking on from the business door.
The ages addressed occupation specifically circumstances of death and last rites of the other Baltimore casualties have apparently never been recorded although those who fell in the Pratt Street riots turned out to be the first fatality victims of a hostile action in the Civil War (no one was killed during reaction which had ended four days earlier at Fort Sumter South Carolina)
The most thorough contemporary accounts of the riots in Baltimore newspapers state that the police arrested “great numbers” afterward. Only seven were apparently ever named anywhere though – Mark Hagan and Andrew Eisenbreeht, charged with “assaulting an officer with the brick” Richard Brown and Patrick Collins “throwing bricks creating a riot” William Reid “severely injuring a man with a brick” J Friedenwald, “assaulting an unknown man” and Lawrence T Erwin, “throwing a brick on Pratt Street” these seven constituted a nether Civil War first
The troops from Massachusetts and Pennsylvania were responding to Abraham Lincoln’s April 15 call for volunteers, and many Baltimoreans in slave-holding Maryland interpreted that to be an effort to recruit an army to invade such succeeding “sister states” as Virginia. A Confederate Army recruitment office flourished at Marsh Market: a pro-secession mob of about 800 had roamed Charles Street on the night of April 18, and more than one Negro had recently been flogged for daring to cheer the Republican President in public.
So the Baltimoreans in the Pratt Street riots were as much pro-Southern as they were simply pro Maryland or simply outraged by the alleged violation of State sovereignty by another State’s Militia (An idea suggested in “ Maryland! My Maryland!” the official state song that was inspired by and written shortly after the riots by writer Randall, a native Baltimorean English teacher then in New Orleans).!
And so the seven Baltimoreans arrested turned out to be the first Civil War partisans of either side who suffered official legal action for their pains. Of them boldly Lawrence T Erwin was convicted and “held for sentence” so far as contemporary accounts, histories and memories reveal. His sentence, if any, is also unrecorded.
One history of Baltimore Police Department explains that “it was useless to arrest men when not an officer could be spared to put them in jail.” It seemed too, that although the department had been reorganized about a year earlier under Marshal George P. Kane to rid it of corrupt “Know Nothing” political elements, it had no patrol wagons in 1861, and since the main body of police detailed to maintain order during the militia’s passage was either a half mile away at Camden Station or in route to the scene of the fighting door and most of the writing, it is perhaps remarkable that as many as seven arrests were made.
Why the main body of police was at the end of the troops projected route, instead of at its beginning, is still something of a mystery. The record collection of the riots that was published 19 years after the events by George William Brown, who was mayor in 1861, lays part of the blame on the management of the P.W. & B. be railroad the company failure to answer marshal Kane’s repeated telegrams that ask how many troops were in route to the Pres. Street location and when: so by 1030 on the morning of April 19, the police could do nothing better than send their main body – “a strong force” – the Camden Station.
Such action was proper, one infers from Mayor Brown’s account, even though a large crowd had assembled at both stations as early as 9 AM and even though the secessionist flag – a circle of white stars on a field of blue – was displayed by the throng and Pres. Street station. Passers to arrive from the North won the P.W. & B than customarily stayed one the cars and Pres. Street station if they were bound for Washington, and the cars were hauled one by one and by four force teams, to Camden station, where the passengers got off and boarded Baltimore and Ohio trains to continue to national capital. “As the change of cars occurred at this point,” a Police Department history published in 1888 remarks, “it was here that the attack was feared.”
But why at Camden station, to which the troops would have been pulled more than a mile through angry spectators who it already been hurrahing Jefferson Davis. President of the new Confederacy, and cheering president Lincoln for an hour and a half?
Only the day before, a lesser riot (resulting in no deaths) began near the Bolton station one another troop of Pennsylvania Militia (the first defenders) D trained in North Baltimore and was stoned by a mob as it marched south to board a train for Washington. The police applied more and less effective protection for the first defenders while they were of foot in Baltimore on April 18. Why then did marshal Kane apparently reverses strategy on April 19 and decide that the six Massachusetts et al would be safe while on the cars as they were pulled from Pres. Street station to Camden station?
Mayor Brown later decided (in his memoirs of the riot, published in 1887) to the six Massachusetts et al would have been more imposing, therefore safer, if they had marched as a body of 1700 men from one station to the other. Just such an order for marching through Baltimore was apparently prepared by the sixth Massachusetts commander, Col. Edward F Jones, but it was abandoned “someone had plundered” Mayor Brown concluded hinting strongly that some PW and be executives had.
The logic of hindsight suggests that the main body of police should have met the train at Pres. Street station and that adequate details of officers should have escorted each horse-drawn cart of soldiers to Camden station. As it happened the first nine cars of 35 car troop train hauled Col. Jones and seven of his 11 Massachusetts companies of Pres. Street, across Pratt Street and down Howard Street to Camden station with little, if any police escort – and still they made the trip without serious mishap. The crowd hissed but threw stones at only the last car, and Mayor Brown, who by this time had arrived to Camden station from his law office, thought that maybe the nine cars were the lot.
The 10th car was halted at the Pratt Street bridge over Jones falls by a wagon load of sand that the mob dumped in its path, some anchors (perhaps eight that Negro seamen from nearby ships drew across the tracks, and a motley barricade of lumber and paving stones that were handy because the street was by chance under repair at that point.
The 10th car returned to Pres. Street station, where the mob had swelled to about 2000 and where some police arrived (from outlying districts, apparently not from the main body at Camden station) as the 220 or so soldiers D trained and lined up in single file. Their effort to March to Camden station in this unlikely formation was blocked by a knot of men flying the “Succession Flag” so they were formed into double file, about faced, an marched in the opposite direction, (i.e. retreat) conceivably inspired to dive into the harbor and swim West at the Light Street. The mob having savagely choked a union sympathizer, who tried to tear down the “Succession Flag”, circled the soldiers and halted the de facto retreat. The troopers then fell in by platoons, for abreast, and with police help, wedged a path north on President Street. The gang with the “Succession Flag” would march ahead of them and savagely beat two or more union sympathizers who tried to tear down the banner, then ran along the militia ranks. Part of the crowd behind the six Massachusetts columns then began to throw stones, one of which felled a trooper named William patch, who was then beaten with his own musket.
The four companies – C, D, I and L – then began either “to run” or March “at double quick,” presumably one orders from one or all of their captains, who were named Follansbee, Hart, Pickering and Dike. Two more soldiers were knocked down at Pres. and styles streets – possibly by a flatiron or one of the “queer missiles” (meaning chamber pots) that were thrown by Baltimore women in the mob, according to the 1936 reminiscence of Aaron J Fletcher the last survivor of the Civil War six Massachusetts.
Mr. Fletcher is the only direct account that even suggests that any women were involved in the riots. (A romantic story, written in 1865, alleges that a Baltimore prostitute named in Manley saved the six Massachusetts Regiment band by guiding them away from Pres. Street station by back alleys – but most accounts state that the police protected the musicians) at about the time the troops turned the corner into Pratt Street, at any rate, someone fired the first shot.
E. W. Beatty, of Baltimore fired that shot from the crowd, according to the opinion that seemed to be based on the opinions of Confederate officers with whom a he later served before he was killed in action. One of the six Massachusetts soldiers fired that first shot, according to contemporary newspaper accounts that attributed the information to a policeman identified only as “number 71” by that time Mayor Brown had heard that the mob had poured up Pratt Street and had hastened to the bridge. Where he met the new and wonders and joined them in their March at the head of the column as far back toward Camden station as light Street.
Mayor Brown’s account states that he slowed the soldiers pace (they also had to pick their way through the half hazards barricade at the bridge) the Capt. Follansbee said: “We have been attacked without provocations” and that he Mayor Brown replied “you must defend yourselves.”
The troopers of home about 60 carried muskets, then began to fire in earnest – in volleys, according to the newspaper; over their shoulders and helter-skelter, according to Mayor Brown; definitely not in volleys, according to Karen Fletcher’s recollection (although he was with Company E, which passed safely through in one of the nine cars) the first Baltimorean hit (in the groin) was supposed to be Francis X Ward.
A Unionist newspaper in Washington quoted Col. Jones and the next day as saying that Mayor Brown had seized a musket and shot a man during the march. Mr. Brown wrote later that a boy he had handed him a smoking musket which a soldier had dropped and that he had immediately handed it to a policeman.
The Mayor must have found that the Pratt Street riots generally embarrassing. Then 48 years old he had been elected in October, 1860, on the reform ticket dedicated to absolving Baltimore of its nickname “Mobtown” and he helped put down the bank of Maryland riots in 1835. He believed in freeing the slaves gradually, but felt that slavery was allowed by the Constitution and that the South should be allowed to succeed in peace.
He was some early arrested by the federal military in September 1861 and prisons until November 1862 from 1872 until the year before his death 1890 he served as chief judge of the supreme bench of Baltimore city. He was defeated in a campaign for mayor in 1885.
When Mayor Brown left the Massachusetts infantrymen, near Pratt and light Street, most of the casualties had fallen, the fighting having been heaviest near South Street. The Baltimore dead and wounded were mostly bystanders, according to most Baltimore accounts, because the running soldiers allegedly fired to the front and sides and not at the hostile mob behind them which may have been as small as 250 men, according to the “Tercentenary History of Maryland”
A historian who took notable exception to the bystander only version was J Thomas Clark, author of the “Chronicles of Baltimore” which describes an “amends concourse of people” that to a man threw paving stones at the troopers from in front of them.
Before the column reached Charles Street, marshal Kane and about 40 police finally arrived from Camden station and through a cordon around the soldiers. “Halt men or I’ll shoot!” The Marshall is supposed to have cried as he and his men brandished revolvers. The mob halted.
That even marshal Kane telegraphed friends to recruit Virginia rifleman to defend Baltimore further from invasion by union militia. In June, after general Benjamin Butler “occupied” Baltimore with other Massachusetts troops, the police Marshall was also arrested and imprisoned. Released in 1862, he went to Richmond apparently by informal agreement, and apparently served in the Confederacy during the war. He died at the age of 58 and 1878, seven months after he was elected Baltimore’s Mayor.
The six Massachusetts had left Baltimore by 1 PM on April 19, 1861 – short of its dead and some of its wounded, who were cared for in Baltimore hospitals and temporarily buried and Greenmount Cemetery and its regimental bands men who along with 1000 unarmed Pennsylvania volunteers were more effectively protected by the police from two attacks at Pres. Street station by mobs which may have increased to 10,000 persons according to Mr. Scarf’s Chronicle.
The Pratt Street riots occurred on the anniversary of the revolutionary war battle of Lexington, a coincidence which both northern and southern propagandists made a lot of, notably the former the civic leaders of Baltimore called halfheartedly for law and order in speeches in Monument Square when the same afternoon, ordered railroad bridges burned North the city and persuaded Pres. Lincoln to route further worsened the defenders through Annapolis.
Much of the city might protest that its sovereignty had been violated, the riots appeared to the North to be a pro-Confederate outrage, and it is not difficult to understand why the federal government soon decided to clamp down on the city.
The six Massachusetts was in Baltimore three more times during the war. It survivors were felt it here on several occasions afterwards. Its reception on April 19, 1861 caused far-reaching repercussions, though including the ironic turnabout in Baltimore which saw Unionist mobs roughing up success in this one the streets as soon after the riots as May 1861.
Note; Marshal George P Kane was Baltimore’s police Commissioner at the time called Marshal – Mayor George W Brown was the city’s mayor at the time
A map shows the route followed by the Massachusetts infantrymen on their march from Pres. Street station to Camden station
The three contemporary drawings produced above show the six Massachusetts fighting its way along Pratt Street against the mob of April 19, 1861. The middle sketch is from Harper’s weekly the other two are from Frank Leslie’s pictorial history of the war.
The attack on the six Massachusetts was drawn by Albert Faulk Baltimore artist perhaps a witness

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Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department.

Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it." follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

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Detective Julius Neveker

Thursday, 30 January 2020 13:29


Detective Julius Neveker

Jules NevCourtesy Walt Neveker
Jules Nev 2Courtesy Walt Neveker
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Earning His Badge of Service

February 07, 2004

City police detective ends 50 years on force

February 07, 2004|By Jamie Stiehm | Jamie Stiehm,SUN STAFF

On a wintry January day in 1954, an 18-year-old from South Baltimore started his first day on the job as a telephone clerk in the city's Southern Police District. In those days, that was the place where kids who wanted to be police officers grew into the job. Over the next 50 years, Julius O. Neveker Sr. saw a bit of everything when it came to the seamy sides of the city. He saw bloody stabbing scenes. He saw the damage done during the street riots of 1968. He saw commissioners and mayors come and go. And, on one memorable night some 30 years ago, while he was a member of the city vice squad, he helped round up more than 100 female impersonators on prostitution charges. "The good old days are gone forever," Neveker, the longest-serving officer on the city police force, said wryly yesterday at a retirement celebration attended by many dignitaries, including Baltimore police Commissioner Kevin P. Clark. "What can I say?"  His friends came out in force to say goodbye yesterday at police headquarters on East Fayette Street, and laughter filled the auditorium as 150 officers enjoyed the 68-year-old detective's trademark memories and salty humor. Matt Jablow, the city police spokesman, said yesterday that Neveker might be a record-holder beyond Baltimore. "It is believed 50 years is a record for the longest time anyone has served continuously in a police agency," he said. "We're checking the Guinness Book of World Records." Neveker's last post was keeping watch inside City Hall. When Neveker was promoted to patrolman at 21, the Southern High School graduate felt home free. Clad in a pinstripe suit yesterday, Neveker waved a newspaper clipping from 1957 about himself as a telephone clerk. The article noted, "His most cherished ambition is to don the blue as a regular member of the force." During his early patrol days, Neveker walked and covered familiar turf, the South Baltimore streets he knew from boyhood. "In South Baltimore, the men were men and the women knew it," he said half-jokingly. "People in the neighborhood knew you. I miss some of the old-timers." Neveker, known as Jules, clearly hails from the city's old school himself, by the way he says "po-lice," stressing the first syllable. He and his wife Nancy have lived in Eldersburg in Carroll County for many years, but his Baltimore street syntax has not worn off. Other tours of duty included the Southwestern District, the Criminal Investigation Division, the auto theft and vice squad divisions. One night while working on the vice squad, Neveker recalled, he and others arrested 119 "female impersonators," as he put it, near Pennsylvania Avenue to face a judge in District Court the next morning. When he worked downtown, Neveker became known as the "Fish Man" throughout police headquarters because he always stopped at Baltimore's fresh-fish market by the waterfront and brought seafood to colleagues who placed orders. "Word got around that I had fish in my briefcase," Neveker said. In the late 1960s or early 1970s, that practice temporarily came to a stop when a colonel told him he shouldn't transport fish in his squad car. When the colonel found he was delivering fish to the commissioner, the ruling was reversed. Not intimidated by authority in a rigidly rank-conscious organization of 3,300 uniformed officers, Neveker delighted in telling small tales of defiance yesterday.  When a colonel caught him dozing at his desk, he rebounded by telling him he was praying. As he told it, he added with comedic timing: "I was praying that you wouldn't catch me sleeping." On another occasion, when his boss wouldn't give him a day off, he appealed to the boss' wife. Nancy Neveker said even when her husband was sick with a temperature of 103 or 104 degrees, she could not stop him from going to work. "It was my life," Neveker told the audience of officers. "Every one of you is my brother and sister."


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Please contact Det. Ret. Kenny Driscoll if you have any pictures of you or your family members and wish them remembered here on this tribute site to Honor the fine men and women who have served with Honor and Distinction at the Baltimore Police Department. Anyone with information, photographs, memorabilia, or other "Baltimore City Police" items can contact Ret. Det. Kenny Driscoll at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. follow us on Twitter @BaltoPoliceHist or like us on Facebook or mail pics to 8138 Dundalk Ave. Baltimore Md. 21222

Copyright © 2002 Baltimore City Police History - Ret Det Kenny Driscoll 

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